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Strange Quark Contributions to Parity-Violating Asymmetries in the Backward Angle G0 Electron Scattering Experiment  [PDF]
The G0 Collaboration
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.012001
Abstract: We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton and quasi-elastic electron-deuteron scattering at Q^2 = 0.22 and 0.63 GeV^2. They are sensitive to strange quark contributions to currents in the nucleon, and to the nucleon axial current. The results indicate strange quark contributions of < 10% of the charge and magnetic nucleon form factors at these four-momentum transfers. We also present the first measurement of anapole moment effects in the axial current at these four-momentum transfers.
Measurement of Strange Quark Contributions to the Nucleon's Form Factors at Q^2=0.230 (GeV/c)^2  [PDF]
A4 Collaboration,F. E. Maas,P. Achenbach,K. Aulenbacher,S. Baunack,L. Capozza,J. Diefenbach,K. Grimm,Y. Imai,T. Hammel,D. von Harrach,E. -M. Kabuss,R. Kothe,J. H. Lee,A. Lorente,A. Lopes Ginja,L. Nungesser,E. Schilling,G. Stephan,C. Weinrich,I. Altarev,J. Arvieux,B. Collin,R. Frascaria,M. Guidal,R. Kunne,D. Marchand,M. Morlet,S. Ong,J. van de Wiele,S. Kowalski,B. Plaster,R. Suleiman,S. Taylor
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.022002
Abstract: We report on a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons on unpolarized protons at a $Q^2$ of 0.230 (GeV/c)^2 and a scattering angle of \theta_e = 30^o - 40^o. Using a large acceptance fast PbF_2 calorimeter with a solid angle of \Delta\Omega = 0.62 sr the A4 experiment is the first parity violation experiment to count individual scattering events. The measured asymmetry is A_{phys} =(-5.44 +- 0.54_{stat} +- 0.27_{\rm sys}) 10^{-6}. The Standard Model expectation assuming no strangeness contributions to the vector form factors is $A_0=(-6.30 +- 0.43) 10^{-6}$. The difference is a direct measurement of the strangeness contribution to the vector form factors of the proton. The extracted value is G^s_E + 0.225 G^s_M = 0.039 +- 0.034 or F^s_1 + 0.130 F^s_2 = 0.032 +- 0.028.
Evidence for Strange Quark Contributions to the Nucleon's Form Factors at $Q^2$ = 0.108 (GeV/c)$^2$  [PDF]
F. E. Maas,K. Aulenbacher,S. Baunack,L. Capozza,J. Diefenbach,B. Gl?ser,T. Hammel,D. von Harrach,Y. Imai,E. -M. Kabu?,R. Kothe,J. H. Lee,A. Lorente,E. Schilling,D. Schwaab,M. Sikora,G. Stephan,G. Weber,C. Weinrich,I. Altarev,J. Arvieux,M. El-Yakoubi,R. Frascaria,R. Kunne,M. Morlet,S. Ong,J. van de Wiele,S. Kowalski,B. Plaster,R. Suleiman,S. Taylor
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.152001
Abstract: We report on a measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons off unpolarized protons with the A4 apparatus at MAMI in Mainz at a four momentum transfer value of $Q^2$ = \Qsquare (GeV/c)$^2$ and at a forward electron scattering angle of 30$^\circ < \theta_e < 40^\circ$. The measured asymmetry is $A_{LR}(\vec{e}p)$ = (\Aphys $\pm$ \Deltastat$_{stat}$ $\pm$ \Deltasyst$_{syst}$) $\times$ 10$^{-6}$. The expectation from the Standard Model assuming no strangeness contribution to the vector current is A$_0$ = (\Azero $\pm$ \DeltaAzero) $\times$ 10$^{-6}$. We have improved the statistical accuracy by a factor of 3 as compared to our previous measurements at a higher $Q^2$. We have extracted the strangeness contribution to the electromagnetic form factors from our data to be $G_E^s$ + \FakGMs $G_M^s$ = \GEsGMs $\pm $ \DeltaGEsGMs at $Q^2$ = \Qsquare (GeV/c)$^2$. As in our previous measurement at higher momentum transfer for $G_E^s$ + 0.230 $G_M^s$, we again find the value for $G_E^s$ + \FakGMs $G_M^s$ to be positive, this time at an improved significance level of 2 $\sigma$.
Strange magnetic form factor of the proton at $Q^2 = 0.23$ GeV$^2$
Wang, P.;Leinweber, D. B.;Thomas, A. W.;Young, R. D.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.79.065202
Abstract: We determine the $u$ and $d$ quark contributions to the proton magnetic form factor at finite momentum transfer by applying chiral corrections to quenched lattice data. Heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory is applied at next to leading order in the quenched, and full QCD cases for the valence sector using finite range regularization. Under the assumption of charge symmetry these values can be combined with the experimental values of the proton and neutron magnetic form factors to deduce a relatively accurate value for the strange magnetic form factor at $Q^2=0.23$ GeV$^2$, namely $G_M^s=-0.034 \pm 0.021$ $\mu_N$.
Strange Quark Contributions to Parity-Violating Asymmetries in the Forward G0 Electron-Proton Scattering Experiment  [PDF]
The G0 Collaboration
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.092001
Abstract: We have measured parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton scattering over the range of momentum transfers 0.12 < Q^2 < 1.0 GeV^2. These asymmetries, arising from interference of the electromagnetic and neutral weak interactions, are sensitive to strange quark contributions to the currents of the proton. The measurements were made at JLab using a toroidal spectrometer to detect the recoiling protons from a liquid hydrogen target. The results indicate non-zero, Q^2 dependent, strange quark contributions and provide new information beyond that obtained in previous experiments.
Centrality dependence of elliptic flow of multi-strange hadrons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV  [PDF]
Shusu Shi,for the STAR collaboration
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We present recent results of the mid-rapidity elliptic flow ($v_2$) for multi-strange hadrons and the $\phi$ meson as a function of centrality in Au + Au collisions at the center of mass energy $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. The transverse momentum dependence of $\phi$ and $\Omega$ $v_2$ is similar to that of pion and proton, indicating that the heavier strange ($s$) quark flows as strongly as the lighter up ($u$) and down ($d$) quarks. These observations constitute a clear piece of evidence for the development of partonic collectivity in heavy-ion collisions at the top RHIC energy. In addition, the mass ordering of $v_2$ breaks between the $\phi$ and proton at low transverse momenta in the 0-30\% centrality bin, possibly due to the effect of late hadronic interactions on the proton $v_2$.
The Charm Content of W+1 Jet Events as a Probe of the Strange Quark Distribution Function  [PDF]
U. Baur,F. Halzen,S. Keller,M. L. Mangano,K. Riesselmann
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(93)91553-Y
Abstract: We investigate the prospects for measuring the strange quark distribution function of the proton in associated $W$ plus charm quark production at the Tevatron. The $W+c$ quark signal produced by strange quark -- gluon fusion, $sg\rightarrow W^-c$ and $\bar sg\rightarrow W^+\bar c$, is approximately 5\% of the inclusive $W+1$ jet cross section for jets with a transverse momentum $p_T(j)>10$~GeV. We study the sensitivity of the $W$ plus charm quark cross section to the parametrization of the strange quark distribution function, and evaluate the various background processes. Strategies to identify charm quarks in CDF and D\O \ are discussed. For a charm tagging efficiency of about 10\% and an integrated luminosity of 30~pb$^{-1}$ or more, it should be possible to constrain the strange quark distribution function from $W+c$ production at the Tevatron.
Constraints on the Nucleon Strange Form Factors at Q^2 ~ 0.1 GeV^2  [PDF]
The HAPPEX Collaboration
Statistics , 2005, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2006.03.011
Abstract: We report the most precise measurement to date of a parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering. The measurement was carried out with a beam energy of 3.03 GeV and a scattering angle =6 degrees, with the result A_PV = -1.14 +/- 0.24 (stat) +/- 0.06 (syst) parts per million. From this we extract, at Q^2 = 0.099 GeV^2, the strange form factor combination G_E^s + 0.080 G_M^s = 0.030 +/- 0.025 (stat) +/- 0.006 (syst) +/- 0.012 (FF) where the first two errors are experimental and the last error is due to the uncertainty in the neutron electromagnetic form factor. This result significantly improves current knowledge of G_E^s and G_M^s at Q^2 ~0.1 GeV^2. A consistent picture emerges when several measurements at about the same Q^2 value are combined: G_E^s is consistent with zero while G_M^s prefers positive values though G_E^s=G_M^s=0 is compatible with the data at 95% C.L.
Pursuing the Strange Stop Interpretation of the HERA Large Q^2 data  [PDF]
J. Ellis,S. Lola,K. Sridhar
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(97)00845-9
Abstract: We explore the possible interpretation of the large-$Q^2$ anomaly reported by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations in terms of stop squark production off a strange quark in the proton via an R-violating interaction. This "strange stop" interpretation is constrained by LEP measurements of the $Z \to e^+ e^-$ decay rate in addition to constraints from the electroweak $\rho$ parameter and CDF and D0 searches for first-generation leptoquarks. We investigate the interplay between these constraints, taking full account of stop mixing effects. We find that if $m_{\tilde t} \le 200$ GeV only relatively small domains of the chargino and neutralino parameters are consistent with these constraints, and explore the extent to which this scenario may be probed further by searches for contact interactions at LEP~2 and experiments with $e^-$ and polarized beams at HERA.
Systematic investigation of partonic collectivity through centrality dependence of elliptic flow of multi-strange hadrons in Au+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV in STAR  [PDF]
Md. Nasim
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2013.02.036
Abstract: We present the measurement of centrality dependence of multi-strange hadron ($\Omega$, $\Xi$ and $\phi$) elliptic flow ($v_{2}$) at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collision at $\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV. We investigate number-of-constituents quark (NCQ) scaling of identified hadrons $v_{2}$ for different collision centralities. Maximum deviation from ideal NCQ scaling observed at the level of 10% for centrality 30-80$%$ at $(m_{T} - m_{0})/n_{q}$ $>$ 0.6 GeV/$c^{2}$. This may indicate smaller contribution to the collectivity from the partonic phase in the peripheral collisions. We also observe the mass ordering of $v_{2}$ break down between proton and $\phi$-meson for $p_{T}$ $< $1 GeV/$c$. This could be due to the effect of later stage hadronic interactions on $v_{2}$.
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