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Negative Ion Drift and Diffusion in a TPC near 1 Bar  [PDF]
C. J. Martoff,R. Ayad,M. Katz-Hyman,G. Bonvicini,A. Schreiner
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2005.08.103
Abstract: Drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion measurements are reported for a Negative Ion TPC (NITPC) operating with Helium + carbon disulfide gas mixtures at total pressures from 160 to 700 torr. Longitudinal diffusion at the thermal-limit was observed for drift fields up to at least 700 V/cm in all gas mixtures tested. The results are of particular interest in connection with mechanical simplification of Dark Matter searches such as DRIFT, and for high energy physics experiments in which a low-Z, low density, gaseous tracking detector with no appreciable Lorentz drift is needed for operation in very high magnetic fields.
Extending axions searches with a spherical TPC  [PDF]
Javier Galan,Gilles Gerbier,Ioannis Giomataris,Thomas Papaevangelou,Ilias Savvidis
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We present the prospects for detection of KK-axions using a large volume spherical TPC through natural decay to two gammas. The higher excited mass states of this axion model allows to reach densities which could be detectable by this method. We show the capability of this detector to detect 2-prong events coming from rest-mass axion decays and we provide efficiencies obtained under some gas mixtures and pressure conditions. The sensitivity limit of a future experiment with existing detectors geometry has been estimated for the case of zero background limit.
Simulations of the Nuclear Recoil Head-Tail Signature in Gases Relevant to Directional Dark Matter Searches  [PDF]
P. Majewski,D. Muna,D. P. Snowden-Ifft,N. J. C. Spooner
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2010.08.007
Abstract: We present the first detailed simulations of the head-tail effect relevant to directional Dark Matter searches. Investigations of the location of the majority of the ionization charge as being either at the beginning half (tail) or at the end half (head) of the nuclear recoil track were performed for carbon and sulphur recoils in 40 Torr negative ion carbon disulfide and for fluorine recoils in 100 Torr carbon tetrafluoride. The SRIM simulation program was used, together with a purpose-written Monte Carlo generator, to model production of ionizing pairs, diffusion and basic readout geometries relevant to potential real detector scenarios, such as under development for the DRIFT experiment. The results clearly indicate the existence of a head-tail track asymmetry but with a magnitude critically influenced by two competing factors: the nature of the stopping power and details of the range straggling. The former tends to result in the tail being greater than the head and the latter the reverse.
NEXT, a HPGXe TPC for neutrinoless double beta decay searches  [PDF]
The NEXT Collaboration,F. Granena,T. Lux,F. Nova,J. Rico,F. Sanchez,D. R. Nygren,J. A. S. Barata,F. I. G. M. Borges,C. A. N. Conde,T. H. V. T. Dias,L. M. P. Fernandes,E. D. C. Freitas,J. A. M. Lopes,C. M. B. Monteiro,J. M. F. dos Santos,F. P. Santos,L. M. N. Tavora,J. F. C. A. Veloso,E. Calvo,I. Gil-Botella,P. Novella,C. Palomares,A. Verdugo,I. Giomataris,E. Ferrer-Ribas,J. A. Hernando-Morata,D. Martinez,X. Cid,M. Ball,S. Carcel,A. Cervera,J. Diaz,A. Gil,J. J. Gomez-Cadenas,J. Martin-Albo,F. Monrabal,J. Munoz-Vidal,L. Serra,M. Sorel,N. Yahlali,R. Esteve Bosch,C. W. Lerche,J. D. Martinez,F. J. Mora,A. Sebastia,A. Tarazona,J. F. Toledo,M. Lazaro,J. L. Perez,L. Ripoll,J. M. Carmona,S. Cebrian,T. Dafni,J. Galan,H. Gomez,F. J. Iguaz,I. G. Irastorza,G. Luzon,J. Morales,A. Rodriguez,J. Ruz,A. Tomas,J. A. Villar
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We propose a novel detection concept for neutrinoless double-beta decay searches. This concept is based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) filled with high-pressure gaseous xenon, and with separated-function capabilities for calorimetry and tracking. Thanks to its excellent energy resolution, together with its powerful background rejection provided by the distinct double-beta decay topological signature, the design discussed in this Letter Of Intent promises to be competitive and possibly out-perform existing proposals for next-generation neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. We discuss the detection principles, design specifications, physics potential and R&D plans to construct a detector with 100 kg fiducial mass in the double-beta decay emitting isotope Xe(136), to be installed in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory.
Measurement of the drift field in the ARGONTUBE LAr TPC with 266~nm pulsed laser beams  [PDF]
A. Ereditato,D. Goeldi,S. Janos,I. Kreslo,M. Luethi,C. Rudolf von Rohr,M. Schenk,T. Strauss,M. S. Weber,M. Zeller
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/9/11/P11010
Abstract: ARGONTUBE is a liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr TPC) with a drift field generated in-situ by a Greinacher voltage multiplier circuit. We present results on the measurement of the drift-field distribution inside ARGONTUBE using straight ionization tracks generated by an intense UV laser beam. Our analysis is based on a simplified model of the charging of a multi-stage Greinacher circuit to describe the voltages on the field cage rings.
Observation of the Dependence of Scintillation from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon on Drift Field  [PDF]
T. Alexander,H. O. Back,H. Cao,A. G. Cocco,F. DeJongh,G. Fiorillo,C. Galbiati,C. Ghag,L. Grandi,C. Kendziora,W. H. Lippincott,B. Loer,C. Love,L. Manenti,C. J. Martoff,Y. Meng,D. Montanari,P. Mosteiro,D. Olvitt,S. Pordes,H. Qian,B. Rossi,R. Saldanha,W. Tan,J. Tatarowicz,S. Walker,H. Wang,A. W. Watson,S. Westerdale,J. Yoo
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.88.092006
Abstract: We have exposed a dual-phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrowband neutron beam, produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics to study the scintillation light yield of recoiling nuclei in a LAr-TPC. A liquid scintillation counter was arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the LAr-TPC target and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We report the observation of a significant dependence on drift field of liquid argon scintillation from nuclear recoils of 11 keV. This observation is important because, to date, estimates of the sensitivity of noble liquid TPC dark matter searches are based on the assumption that electric field has only a small effect on the light yield from nuclear recoils.
Light WIMP Searches: The Effect of the Uncertainty in Recoil Energy Scale and Quenching Factor  [PDF]
J. I. Collar
Physics , 2010,
Abstract: Taking liquid xenon detectors as a case study, the importance of a robust recoil energy calibration as a prerequisite to a search for light-mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) is emphasized. Important shortfalls in the analysis of existing measurements of the relative scintillation efficiency and ionization yield for nuclear recoils in liquid xenon are described, leading to the conclusion that recent attempts to extract light-WIMP sensitivity limits from the XENON10 and XENON100 detectors are premature and overly optimistic.
Design and operation of ARGONTUBE: a 5 m long drift liquid argon TPC  [PDF]
A. Ereditato,C. C. Hsu,S. Janos,I. Kreslo,M. Messina,C. Rudolf von Rohr,B. Rossi,T. Strauss,M. S. Weber,M. Zeller
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/8/07/P07002
Abstract: The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) is a prime type of detector for future large-mass neutrino observatories and proton decay searches. In this paper we present the design and operation, as well as experimental results from ARGONTUBE, a LArTPC being operated at the AEC-LHEP, University of Bern. The main goal of this detector is to prove the feasibility of charge drift over very long distances in liquid argon. Many other aspects of the LArTPC technology are also investigated, such as a voltage multiplier to generate high voltage in liquid argon (Greinacher circuit), a cryogenic purification system and the application of multi-photon ionization of liquid argon by a UV laser. For the first time, tracks induced by cosmic muons and UV laser beam pulses have been observed and studied at drift distances of up to 5m, the longest reached to date.
Radon in the DRIFT-II directional dark matter TPC: emanation, detection and mitigation  [PDF]
J. B. R. Battat,J. Brack,E. Daw,A. Dorofeev,A. C. Ezeribe,J. R. Fox,J. -L. Gauvreau,M. Gold,L. J. Harmon,J. L. Harton,J. M. Landers,E. R. Lee,D. Loomba,J. A. J. Matthews,E. H. Miller,A. Monte,A. StJ. Murphy,S. M. Paling,N. Phan,M. Pipe,M. Robinson,S. W. Sadler,A. Scarff,D. P. Snowden-Ifft,N. J. C. Spooner,S. Telfer,D. Walker,D. Warner,L. Yuriev
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/9/11/P11004
Abstract: Radon gas emanating from materials is of interest in environmental science and also a major concern in rare event non-accelerator particle physics experiments such as dark matter and double beta decay searches, where it is a major source of background. Notable for dark matter experiments is the production of radon progeny recoils (RPRs), the low energy (~100 keV) recoils of radon daughter isotopes, which can mimic the signal expected from WIMP interactions. Presented here are results of measurements of radon emanation from detector materials in the 1 metre cubed DRIFT-II directional dark matter gas time projection chamber experiment. Construction and operation of a radon emanation facility for this work is described, along with an analysis to continuously monitor DRIFT data for the presence of internal 222Rn and 218Po. Applying this analysis to historical DRIFT data, we show how systematic substitution of detector materials for alternatives, selected by this device for low radon emanation, has resulted in a factor of ~10 reduction in internal radon rates. Levels are found to be consistent with the sum from separate radon emanation measurements of the internal materials and also with direct measurement using an attached alpha spectrometer. The current DRIFT detector, DRIFT-IId, is found to have sensitivity to 222Rn of 2.5 {\mu}Bq/l with current analysis efficiency, potentially opening up DRIFT technology as a new tool for sensitive radon assay of materials.
Light Yield in DarkSide-10: a Prototype Two-phase Liquid Argon TPC for Dark Matter Searches  [PDF]
T. Alexander,D. Alton,K. Arisaka,H. O. Back,P. Beltrame,J. Benziger,G. Bonfini,A. Brigatti,J. Brodsky,L. Cadonati,F. Calaprice,A. Candela,H. Cao,P. Cavalcante,A. Chavarria,A. Chepurnov,D. Cline,A. G. Cocco,C. Condon,D. D'Angelo,S. Davini,E. De Haas,A. Derbin,G. Di Pietro,I. Dratchnev,D. Durben,A. Empl,A. Etenko,A. Fan,G. Fiorillo,K. Fomenko,F. Gabriele,C. Galbiati,S. Gazzana,C. Ghag,C. Ghiano,A. Goretti,L. Grandi,M. Gromov,M. Guan,C. Guo,G. Guray,E. V. Hungerford,Al. Ianni,An. Ianni,A. Kayunov,K. Keeter,C. Kendziora,S. Kidner,V. Kobychev,G. Koh,D. Korablev,G. Korga,E. Shields,P. Li,B. Loer,P. Lombardi,C. Love,L. Ludhova,L. Lukyanchenko,A. Lund,K. Lung,Y. Ma,I. Machulin,J. Maricic,C. J. Martoff,Y. Meng,E. Meroni,P. D. Meyers,T. Mohayai,D. Montanari,M. Montuschi,P. Mosteiro,B. Mount,V. Muratova,A. Nelson,A. Nemtzow,N. Nurakhov,M. Orsini,F. Ortica,M. Pallavicini,E. Pantic,S. Parmeggiano,R. Parsells,N. Pelliccia,L. Perasso,F. Perfetto,L. Pinsky,A. Pocar,S. Pordes,G. Ranucci,A. Razeto,A. Romani,N. Rossi,P. Saggese,R. Saldanha,C. Salvo,W. Sands,M. Seigar,D. Semenov,M. Skorokhvatov,O. Smirnov,A. Sotnikov,S. Sukhotin,Y. Suvorov,R. Tartaglia,J. Tatarowicz,G. Testera,A. Teymourian,J. Thompson,E. Unzhakov,R. B. Vogelaar,H. Wang,S. Westerdale,M. Wojcik,A. Wright,J. Xu,C. Yang,S. Zavatarelli,M. Zehfus,W. Zhong,G. Zuzel
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.astropartphys.2013.08.004
Abstract: As part of the DarkSide program of direct dark matter searches using liquid argon TPCs, a prototype detector with an active volume containing 10 kg of liquid argon, DarkSide-10, was built and operated underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy. A critically important parameter for such devices is the scintillation light yield, as photon statistics limits the rejection of electron-recoil backgrounds by pulse shape discrimination. We have measured the light yield of DarkSide-10 using the readily-identifiable full-absorption peaks from gamma ray sources combined with single-photoelectron calibrations using low-occupancy laser pulses. For gamma lines of energies in the range 122-1275 keV, we get consistent light yields averaging 8.887+-0.003(stat)+-0.444(sys) p.e./keVee. With additional purification, the light yield measured at 511 keV increased to 9.142+-0.006(stat) p.e./keVee.
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