Abstract:
In this work we suggest a sufficiently simple for understanding "without knowing the details of the quantum gravity" and quite correct deduction of the Unruh temperature (but not whole Unruh radiation process!). Firstly, we shall directly apply usual consequences of the Unruh radiation and temperature at surface gravity of a large spherical physical system and we shall show that corresponding thermal energy can be formally quite correctly presented as the potential energy absolute value of the classical gravitational interaction between this large and a small quantum system with well defined characteristics. Secondly, we shall inversely "postulate" small quantum system with necessary well defined characteristics and then, after "supposition" on the equivalence between potential energy absolute value of its gravitational interaction with large system with thermal energy, we shall obtain exact value of the Unruh temperature. Moreover, by very simple and correct application of suggested formalism (with small quantum system) at thermodynamic laws, we shall successfully study other thermodynamic characteristics, especially entropy, characteristic for Unruh and Hawking radiation

Abstract:
We wish to draw attention to a novel view of the effect of the quantum fluctuations during the radiation of accelerated particles, particularly those in storage rings. This view is inspired by the remarkable insight of Hawking that the effect of the strong gravitational field of a black hole on the quantum fluctuations of the surrounding space is to cause the black hole to radiate with a temperature T = hbar g / 2 pi c k, where g is the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the black hole, c is the speed of light, and k is Boltzmann's constant. Shortly thereafter Unruh argued that an accelerated observer should become excited by quantum fluctuations to a temperature T = hbar a* / 2 pi c k, where a* is the acceleration of the observer in its instantaneous rest frame. In a series of papers Bell and co-workers have noted that electron storage rings provide a demonstration of the utility of the Hawking-Unruh temperature, with emphasis on the question of the incomplete polarization of the electrons due to quantum fluctuations of synchrotron radiation. Here we expand slightly on the results of Bell et al., and encourage the reader to consult the literature for more detailed understanding.

Abstract:
The Hawking-Unruh effect of thermal radiance from a black hole or observed by an accelerated detector is usually viewed as a geometric effect related to the existence of an event horizon. Here we propose a new viewpoint, that the detection of thermal radiance in these systems is a local, kinematic effect arising from the vacuum being subjected to a relativistic exponential scale transformation. This kinematic effect alters the relative weight of quantum versus thermal fluctuations (noise) between the two vacua. This approach can treat conditions which the geometric approach cannot, such as systems which do not even have an event horizon. An example is the case of an observer whose acceleration is nonuniform or only asymptotically uniform. Since this approach is based on concepts and techniques of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, it is more adept to dynamical problems, such as the dissipation, fluctuation, and entropy aspects of particle creation and phase transitions in black hole collapse and in the early universe.

Abstract:
We show that the Unruh effect can create net quantum entanglement between inertial and accelerated observers depending on the choice of the inertial state. This striking result banishes the extended belief that the Unruh effect can only destroy entanglement and furthermore provides a new and unexpected source for finding experimental evidence of the Unruh and Hawking effects.

Abstract:
We consider the problem of estimating the ensemble average of an observable on an ensemble of equally prepared identical quantum systems. We show that, among all kinds of measurements performed jointly on the copies, the optimal unbiased estimation is achieved by the usual procedure that consists in performing independent measurements of the observable on each system and averaging the measurement outcomes.

Abstract:
Here we describe the quantum limit to measurement of the classical gravitational field. Specifically, we write down the optimal quantum Cramer-Rao lower bound, for any single parameter describing a metric for spacetime. The standard time-energy and Heisenberg uncertainty relations are shown to be special cases of the uncertainty relation for the spacetime metric. Four key examples are given, describing quantum limited estimation for: acceleration, black holes, gravitational waves and cosmology. We employ the locally covariant formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime, which allows for a manifestly spacetime independent derivation. The result is an uncertainty relation applicable to all causal spacetime manifolds.

Abstract:
Although the Unruh and Hawking phenomena are commonly linked to field quantization in "accelerated" coordinates or in curved spacetimes, we argue that they are deeply rooted at the classical level. We maintain in particular that these effects should be best understood by considering how the special-relativistic notion of "particle" gets blurred when employed in theories including accelerated observers or in general-relativistic theories, and that this blurring is an instantiation of a more general behavior arising when the principle of equivalence is used to generalize classical or quantum special-relativistic theories to curved spacetimes or accelerated observers. A classical analogue of the Unruh effect, stemming from the non-invariance of the notion of "electromagnetic radiation" as seen by inertial and accelerated observers, is illustrated by means of four gedanken-experimente. The issue of energy balance in the various cases is also briefly discussed.

Abstract:
We construct the optimal strategy for the estimation of an unknown unitary transformation $U\in SU(d)$. This includes, in addition to a convenient measurement on a probe system, finding which is the best initial state on which $U$ is to act. When $U\in SU(2)$, such an optimal strategy can be applied to estimate simultaneously both the direction and the strength of a magnetic field, and shows how to use a spin 1/2 particle to transmit information about a whole coordinate system instead of only a direction in space.

Abstract:
By using a systematic optimization approach we determine quantum states of light with definite photon number leading to the best possible precision in optical two mode interferometry. Our treatment takes into account the experimentally relevant situation of photon losses. Our results thus reveal the benchmark for precision in optical interferometry. Although this boundary is generally worse than the Heisenberg limit, we show that the obtained precision beats the standard quantum limit thus leading to a significant improvement compared to classical interferometers. We furthermore discuss alternative states and strategies to the optimized states which are easier to generate at the cost of only slightly lower precision.

Abstract:
By globally embedding curved spaces into higher dimensional flat ones, we show that Hawking thermal properties map into their Unruh equivalents: The relevant curved space detectors become Rindler ones, whose temperature and entropy reproduce the originals. Specific illustrations include Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-(anti)deSitter, Reissner-Nordstrom and BTZ spaces.