Abstract:
We report the room temperature observation of significant ballistic electron transport in shallow etched four-terminal mesoscopic devices fabricated on an InSb/AlInSb quantum well (QW) heterostructure with a crucial partitioned growth-buffer scheme. Ballistic electron transport is evidenced by a negative bend resistance signature which is quite clearly observed at 295 K and at current densities in excess of 10$^{6}$ A/cm$^{2}$. This demonstrates unequivocally that by using effective growth and processing strategies, room temperature ballistic effects can be exploited in InSb/AlInSb QWs at practical device dimensions.

Abstract:
The calculation of the conductance of ballistic rings requires a theory that goes well beyond the Kubo-Drude formula. Assuming "mesoscopic" circumstance of very weak environmental relaxation, the conductance is much smaller compared with the naive expectation. Namely, the electro-motive-force induces an energy absorption with a rate that depends crucially on the possibility to make connected sequences of transitions. Thus the calculation of the mesoscopic conductance is similar to solving a percolation problem. The "percolation" is in energy space rather than in real space. Non-universal structures and sparsity of the perturbation matrix cannot be ignored. The latter are implied by lack of quantum-chaos ergodicity in ring shaped ballistic devices.

Abstract:
We provide a theoretical explanation for two recent experiments on decoherence of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in two- and multi-terminal ballistic rings. We consider decoherence due to charge fluctuations and emphasize the role of charge exchange between the system and the reservoir or nearby gates. A time-dependent scattering matrix approach is shown to be a convenient tool for the discussion of decoherence in ballistic conductors.

Abstract:
Transport measurements were made on four-terminal devices fabricated from InSb/Al_xIn_(1-x)Sb quantum well structures at temperatures from 1.5 to 300K. Negative bend resistance, which is characteristic of ballistic transport, was observed in devices of channel widths 0.2 or 0.5 {\mu}m. We have improved upon the existing implementations of R-matrix theory in device physics by introducing boundary conditions that dramatically speed convergence. By comparison with R-matrix calculations, we show that the experimental observations are consistent with quantum coherent transport.

Abstract:
We investigate the ballistic spin transport through a two-dimensional mesoscopic metal/semiconductor/metal double junctions in the presence of spin-orbit interactions. It is shown that \emph{real} longitudinal and/or transverse spin currents can flow in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus terms.

Abstract:
By coupling the asymmetric three-terminal mesoscopic dielectric system with a temperature probe, at low temperature, the ballistic heat flux flow through the other two asymmetric terminals in the nonlinear response regime is studied based on the Landauer formulation of transport theory. The thermal rectification is attained at the quantum regime. It is a purely quantum effect and is determined by the dependence of the ratio $\tau_{RC}(\omega)/\tau_{RL}(\omega)$ on $\omega$, the phonon's frequency. Where $\tau_{RC}(\omega)$ and $\tau_{RL}(\omega)$ are respectively the transmission coefficients from two asymmetric terminals to the temperature probe, which are determined by the inelastic scattering of ballistic phonons in the temperature probe. Our results are confirmed by extensive numerical simulations.

Abstract:
Recent experiments on symmetry-broken mesoscopic semiconductor structures have exhibited an amazing rectifying effect in the transverse current-voltage characteristics with promising prospects for future applications. We present a simple microscopic model, which takes into account the energy dependence of current-carrying modes and explains the rectifying effect by an interplay of fully quantized and quasi-classical transport channels in the system. It also suggests the design of a ballistic rectifier with an optimized rectifying signal and predicts voltage oscillations which may provide an experimental test for the mechanism considered here.

Abstract:
The presence of spin-orbit coupling affects the spontaneously flowing persistent currents in mesoscopic conducting rings. Here we analyze their dependence on magnetic flux with emphasis on identifying possibilities to prove the presence and extract the strength of Rashba spin splitting in low-dimensional systems. Effects of disorder and mixing between quasi-onedimensional ring subbands are considered. The spin-orbit coupling strength can be inferred from the values of flux where sign changes occur in the persistent charge current. As an important consequence of the presence of spin splitting, we identify a nontrivial persistent spin current that is not simply proportional to the charge current. The different flux dependences of persistent charge and spin currents are a unique signature of spin-orbit coupling affecting the electronic structure of the ring.

Abstract:
This paper presents an implementation of interning of ground terms in the XSB Tabled Prolog system. This is related to the idea of hash-consing. I describe the concept of interning atoms and discuss the issues around interning ground structured terms, motivating why tabling Prolog systems may change the cost-benefit tradeoffs from those of traditional Prolog systems. I describe the details of the implementation of interning ground terms in the XSB Tabled Prolog System and show some of its performance properties. This implementation achieves the effects of that of Zhou and Have but is tuned for XSB's representations and is arguably simpler.

Abstract:
We present a detailed study of nonequilibrium Josephson currents and conductance in ballistic multiterminal SNS-devices. Nonequilibrium is created by means of quasiparticle injection from a normal reservoir connected to the normal part of the junction. By applying a voltage at the normal reservoir the Josephson current can be suppressed or the direction of the current can be reversed. For a junction longer than the thermal length, $L\gg\xi_T$, the nonequilibrium current increases linearly with applied voltage, saturating at a value equal to the equilibrium current of a short junction. The conductance exhibits a finite bias anomaly around $eV \sim \hbar v_F/L$. For symmetric injection, the conductance oscillates $2\pi$-periodically with the phase difference $\phi$ between the superconductors, with position of the minimum ($\phi=0$ or $\pi$) dependent on applied voltage and temperature. For asymmetric injection, both the nonequilibrium Josephson current and the conductance becomes $\pi$-periodic in phase difference. Inclusion of barriers at the NS-interfaces gives rise to a resonant behavior of the total Josephson current with respect to junction length with a period $\sim \lambda_F$. Both three and four terminal junctions are studied.