Abstract:
We overview the progress made in studies of EMC and short range correlation (SRC) effects with the special emphasis given to the recent observation of the correlation between the slope of the EMC ratio at Bjorken x<1 and the scale factor of the same ratio at x>1 that measures the strength of the SRCs in nuclei. This correlation may indicate the larger modification of nucleons with higher momentum thus making the nucleon virtuality as the most relevant parameter of medium modifications. To check this conjecture we study the implication of several properties of high momentum component of the nuclear wave function on the characteristics of EMC effect. We observe two main reasons for the EMC-SRC correlation: first, the decrease of the contribution from the nuclear mean field due to the increase, with A, the fraction of the high momentum component of nuclear wave function. Second, the increase of the medium modification of nucleons in SRC. Our main prediction however is the increase of the proton contribution to the EMC effect for large A asymmetric nuclei. This prediction is based on the recent observation of the strong dominance of pn SRCs in the high momentum component of nuclear wave function. Our preliminary calculation based on this prediction of the excess of energetic and modified protons in large A nuclei describes reasonably well the main features of the observed EMC-SRC correlation.

Abstract:
The recent x>1 (e,e') and correlation experiments at momentum transfer Q^2 \ge 2 GeV^2 confirm presence of short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei mostly build of nucleons. Recently we evaluated in a model independent way the dominant photon contribution to the nuclear structure. Taking into account this effect and using definition of x consistent with the exact kinematics of eA scattering (with exact sum rules) results in the significant reduction of R_A(x,Q^2)=F_{2A}(x,Q^2)/F_{2N}(x,Q^2) ratio which explains \sim 50% of the EMC effect for x\le 0.55 where Fermi motion effects are small. The remaining part of the EMC effect at $x\ge 0.5$ is consistent with dominance of the contribution of SRCs. Implications for extraction of the F_{2n}/F_{2p} ratio are discussed. Smallness of the non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei matches well the recent observation of a two-solar mass neutron star, and while large pn SRCs lead to enhancement of the neutron star cooling rate for kT\le 0.01 MeV.

Abstract:
An approximate method to quantify the mass dependence of the number of two-nucleon (2N) short-range correlations (SRC) in nuclei is suggested. The proposed method relies on the concept of the "local nuclear character" of the SRC. We quantify the SRC and its mass dependence by computing the number of independent-particle model (IPM) nucleon pairs in a zero relative orbital momentum state. We find that the relative probability per nucleon for 2N SRC follows a power law as a function of the mass number $A$. The predictions are connected to measurements which provide access to the mass dependence of SRC. First, the ratio of the inclusive inelastic electron scattering cross sections of nuclei to $^{2}$H at large values of the Bjorken variable. Second, the EMC effect, for which we find a linear relationship between its magnitude and the predicted number of SRC-prone pairs.

Abstract:
The strong repulsive core of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction at short distances prevents nucleons from becoming close to each other. This gives rise to high-momentum nucleons in the nucleus that cannot be explained in the context of the mean field and are commonly called short-range correlations (SRCs). They are responsible for the strength seen in momentum distribution tails seen in all nuclei, and we can obtain a relative measure of SRCs via cross section ratios to light nuclei. Recent inclusive scattering data from Jefferson Lab have allowed a precise determination of the A-dependence of SRCs in nuclei and suggests that, like the EMC effect, it is especially sensitive to the nuclear local density. These new results, as well as a new analysis of the relationship between SRCs and the EMC effect, will be presented and discussed.

Abstract:
Background: The density of the nucleus has been important in explaining the nuclear dependence of the quark distributions, also known as the EMC effect, as well as the presence of highmomentum nucleons arising from short-range correlations (SRCs). Recent measurements of both of these effects on light nuclei have shown a clear deviation from simple density-dependent models. Purpose: A better understanding of the nuclear quark distributions and short-range correlations requires a careful examination of the experimental data on these effects to constrain models that attempt to describe these phenomena. Methods: We present a detailed analysis of the nuclear dependence of the EMC effect and the contribution of SRCs in nuclei, comparing to predictions and simple scaling models based on different pictures of the underlying physics. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison of the two effects to further examine the connection between these two observables related to nuclear structure. Results: We find that, with the inclusion of the new data on light nuclei, neither of these observables can be well explained by common assumptions for the nuclear dependence. The anomalous behavior of both effects in light nuclei is consistent with the idea the the EMC effect is driven by either the presence of high-density configurations in nuclei or the large virtuality of the highmomentum nucleons associated with these configurations. Conclusions: The unexpected nuclear dependence in the measurements of the EMC effect and SRC contributions appear to suggest that the local environment of the struck nucleon is the most relevant quantity for explaining these results. The common behavior suggests a connection between the two seemingly disparate phenomena, but the data do not yet allow for a clear preference between models which aim to explain this connection.

Abstract:
Recent developments in understanding the influence of the nucleus on deep-inelastic structure functions, the EMC effect, are reviewed. A new data base which expresses ratios of structure functions in terms of the Bjorken variable $x_A=AQ^2/(2M_A q_0)$ is presented. Information about two-nucleon short-range correlations from experiments is also discussed and the remarkable linear relation between short-range correlations and teh EMC effect is reviewed. A convolution model that relates the underlying source of the EMC effect to modification of either the mean-field nucleons or the short-range correlated nucleons is presented. It is shown that both approaches are equally successful in describing the current EMC data.

Abstract:
Recent developments in understanding the influence of the nucleus on deep-inelastic structure functions, the EMC effect, are reviewed. A new data base which expresses ratios of structure functions in terms of the Bjorken variable $x_A=AQ^2/(2M_A q_0)$ is presented. Information about two-nucleon short-range correlations from experiments is also discussed and the remarkable linear relation between short-range correlations and teh EMC effect is reviewed. A convolution model that relates the underlying source of the EMC effect to modification of either the mean-field nucleons or the short-range correlated nucleons is presented. It is shown that both approaches are equally successful in describing the current EMC data.

Abstract:
We have determined the structure function ratio $R^d_{\rm EMC}=F_2^d/(F_2^n+F_2^p)$ from recently published $F_2^n/F_2^d$ data taken by the BONuS experiment using CLAS at Jefferson Lab. This ratio deviates from unity, with a slope $dR_{\rm EMC}^{d}/dx= -0.10\pm 0.05$ in the range of Bjorken $x$ from 0.35 to 0.7, for invariant mass $W>1.4$ GeV and $Q^2>1$ GeV$^2$. The observed EMC effect for these kinematics is consistent with conventional nuclear physics models that include off-shell corrections, as well as with empirical analyses that find the EMC effect proportional to the probability of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations.

Abstract:
Valence-shell nucleon knock-out experiments, such as 12C(e,e'p)11B, measure less strength then is predicted by independent particle shell model calculations. The theoretical solution to this problem is to include the correlations between the nucleons in the nucleus in the calculations. Motivated by these results, many electron scattering experiments have tried to directly observe these correlations in order to gain new insight into the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon potential. Unfortunately, many competing mechanisms can cause the same observable final-state as an initial-state correlation, making truly isolating the signal extremely challenging. This paper reviews the recent experimental evidence for short-range correlations, as well as explores the possibility that such correlations are responsible for the EMC effect in the 0.3 < xB < 0.7 deep inelastic scattering ratios.

Abstract:
The effect of dynamical short-range correlations on the generalized momentum distribution $n(\vec{p},\vec{Q})$ in the case of $Z=N$, $\ell$-closed shell nuclei is investigated by introducing Jastrow-type correlations in the harmonic-oscillator model. First, a low order approximation is considered and applied to the nucleus $^4$He. Compact analytical expressions are derived and numerical results are presented and the effect of center-of-mass corrections is estimated. Next, an approximation is proposed for $n(\vec{p}, \vec{Q})$ of heavier nuclei, that uses the above correlated $n(\vec{p},\vec{Q})$ of $^4$He. Results are presented for the nucleus $^{16}$O. It is found that the effect of short-range correlations is significant for rather large values of the momenta $p$ and/or $Q$ and should be included, along with center of mass corrections for light nuclei, in a reliable evaluation of $n(\vec{p},\vec{Q})$ in the whole domain of $p$ and $Q$.