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 Physics , 2001, Abstract: High resolution X-ray spectra of very young massive stars opened a new chapter in the diagnostics and understanding of the properties of stellar wind plasmas. Observations of several very young early type stars in the Orion Trapezium demonstrated that the conventional model of shock heated plasmas in stellar winds is not sufficient to explain the observed X-ray spectra. Detailed X-ray line diagnostics revealed extreme temperatures in some of the candidates as well as evidence for high plasma densities. It is also evident from high resolution spectra of more conventional early type stars, that not all show such extreme characteristics. However, the fact that some of the stars show hot and dense components and some do not requires more understanding of the physical processes involved in stellar wind emissions. The Orion Trapezium stars distinguish themselves from all the others by their extreme youth. By comparing the diverse spectral properties of theta Ori A and theta Ori E with those of theta Ori C, we further demonstrate that X-ray spectral properties of very young massive stars are far from understood.
 David H. Cohen Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3241184 Abstract: Massive stars drive powerful, supersonic winds via the radiative momentum associated with the thermal UV emission from their photospheres. Shock phenomena are ubiquitous in these winds, heating them to millions, and sometimes tens of millions, of degrees. The emission line spectra from the shock-heated plasma provide powerful diagnostics of the winds' physical conditions, which in turn provide constraints on models of wind shock heating. Here I show how x-ray line transfer is affected by photoelectric absorption in the partially ionized component of the wind and how it can be modeled to determine the astrophysically important mass-loss rates of these stellar winds. I also discuss how photoexcitation out of metastable excited levels of helium-like ions can provide critical information about the location of the hot plasma in magnetically channeled massive star winds.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1007/s00159-009-0022-4 Abstract: (abridged) Non-degenerate stars of essentially all spectral classes are soft X-ray sources. Low-mass stars on the cooler part of the main sequence and their pre-main sequence predecessors define the dominant stellar population in the galaxy by number. Their X-ray spectra are reminiscent, in the broadest sense, of X-ray spectra from the solar corona. X-ray emission from cool stars is indeed ascribed to magnetically trapped hot gas analogous to the solar coronal plasma. Coronal structure, its thermal stratification and geometric extent can be interpreted based on various spectral diagnostics. New features have been identified in pre-main sequence stars; some of these may be related to accretion shocks on the stellar surface, fluorescence on circumstellar disks due to X-ray irradiation, or shock heating in stellar outflows. Massive, hot stars clearly dominate the interaction with the galactic interstellar medium: they are the main sources of ionizing radiation, mechanical energy and chemical enrichment in galaxies. High-energy emission permits to probe some of the most important processes at work in these stars, and put constraints on their most peculiar feature: the stellar wind. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of cool and hot stars through the study of X-ray spectra, in particular high-resolution spectra now available from XMM-Newton and Chandra. We address issues related to coronal structure, flares, the composition of coronal plasma, X-ray production in accretion streams and outflows, X-rays from single OB-type stars, massive binaries, magnetic hot objects and evolved WR stars.
 F. Martins Physics , 2010, Abstract: We present an overview of a few spectroscopic diagnostics of massive stars. We explore the following wavelength ranges: UV (1000 to 2000 A), optical (4000--7000 A) and near-infrared (mainly H and K bands). The diagnostics we highlight are available in O and Wolf-Rayet stars as well as in B supergiants. We focus on the following parameters: effective temperature, gravity, surface abundances, luminosity, mass loss rate, terminal velocity, wind clumping, rotation/macroturbulence and surface magnetic field.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1063/1.1535240 Abstract: The launch of high-spectral-resolution x-ray telescopes (Chandra, XMM) has provided a host of new spectral line diagnostics for the astrophysics community. In this paper we discuss Doppler-broadened emission line profiles from highly supersonic outflows of massive stars. These outflows, or winds, are driven by radiation pressure and carry a tremendous amount of kinetic energy, which can be converted to x rays by shock-heating even a small fraction of the wind plasma. The unshocked, cold wind is a source of continuum opacity to the x rays generated in the shock-heated portion of the wind. Thus the emergent line profiles are affected by transport through a two-component, moving, optically thick medium. While complicated, the interactions among these physical effects can provide quantitative information about the spatial distribution and velocity of the x-ray-emitting and absorbing plasma in stellar winds. We present quantitative models of both a spherically-symmetric wind and a wind with hot plasma confined in an equatorial disk by a dipole magnetic field.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322308 Abstract: Runaway stars are ejected from their formation sites well within molecular cores in giant dark clouds. Eventually, these stars can travel through the molecular clouds, which are highly inhomogeneous. The powerful winds of massive runaway stars interact with the medium forming bowshocks. Recent observations and theoretical modelling suggest that these bowshocks emit non-thermal radiation. As the massive stars move through the inhomogeneous ambient gas the physical properties of the bowshocks are modified, producing changes in the non-thermal emission. We aim to compute the non-thermal radiation produced in the bowshocks of runaway massive stars when travelling through a molecular cloud. We calculate the non-thermal emission and absorption for two types of massive runaway stars, an O9I and an O4I, as they move through a density gradient. We present the spectral energy distributions for the runaway stars modelled. Additionally, we obtain light curves at different energy ranges. We find significant variations in the emission over timescales of $\sim$ 1 yr. We conclude that bowshocks of massive runaway stars, under some assumptions, might be variable gamma-ray sources, with variability timescales that depend on the medium density profile. These objects might constitute a population of galactic gamma-ray sources turning on and off within years.
 Mariejo Goupil Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-19928-8_8 Abstract: Effects of stellar rotation on adiabatic oscillation frequencies of $\beta$ Cephei star are discussed. Methods to evaluate them are briefly described and some of the main results for four specific stars are presented.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200913079 Abstract: Context: The identification of long-gamma-ray-bursts (LGRBs) is still uncertain, although the collapsar engine of fast-rotating massive stars is gaining a strong consensus. Aims: We propose that low-metallicity Be and Oe stars, which are massive fast rotators, as potential LGRBs progenitors. Methods: We checked this hypothesis by 1) testing the global specific angular momentum of Oe/Be stars in the ZAMS with the SMC metallicity, 2) comparing the ZAMS ($\Omega/\Omega_{\rm c},M/M_{\odot}$) parameters of these stars with the area predicted theoretically for progenitors with metallicity $Z=0.002$, and 3) calculating the expected rate of LGRBs/year/galaxy and comparing them with the observed ones. To this end, we determined the ZAMS linear and angular rotational velocities for SMC Be and Oe stars using the observed vsini parameters, corrected from the underestimation induced by the gravitational darkening effect. Results: The angular velocities of SMC Oe/Be stars are on average $<\Omega/\Omega_{\rm c}>=0.95$ in the ZAMS. These velocities are in the area theoretically predicted for the LGRBs progenitors. We estimated the yearly rate per galaxy of LGRBs and the number of LGRBs produced in the local Universe up to z=0.2. We have considered that the mass range of LGRB progenitors corresponds to stars hotter than spectral types B0-B1 and used individual beaming angles from 5 to 15\degr. We thus obtain $R^{\rm pred}_{\rm LGRB}\sim10^{-7}$ to $\sim10^{-6}$ LGRBs/year/galaxy, which represents on average 2 to 14 LGRB predicted events in the local Universe during the past 11 years. The predicted rates could widely surpass the observed ones [(0.2-3)$\times10^{-7}$ LGRBs/year/galaxy; 8 LGRBs observed in the local Universe during the last 11 years] if the stellar counts were made from the spectral type B1-B2, in accordance with the expected apparent spectral types of the appropriate massive fast rotators. Conclusion: We conclude that the massive Be/Oe stars with SMC metallicity could be LGRBs progenitors. Nevertheless, other SMC O/B stars without emission lines, which have high enough specific angular momentum, can enhance the predicted $R_{\rm LGRB}$ rate.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219078 Abstract: The near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range offers some unique spectral features, and it is less prone to the extinction than the optical one. Recently, the first flux calibrated NIR library of cool stars from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) have become available, and it has not been fully exploited yet. We want to develop spectroscopic diagnostics for stellar physical parameters based on features in the wavelength range 1-5 micron. In this work we test the technique in the I and K bands. The study of the Y, J, H, and L bands will be presented in the following paper. An objective method for semi-empirical definition of spectral features sensitive to various physical parameters is applied to the spectra. It is based on sensitivity map--i.e., derivative of the flux in the spectra with respect to the stellar parameters at a fixed wavelength. New optimized indices are defined and their equivalent widths (EWs) are measured. A number of sensitive features to the effective temperature and surface gravity are re-identified or newly identified clearly showing the reliability of the sensitivity map analysis. The sensitivity map allows to identify the best bandpass limits for the line and nearby continuum. It reliably predicts the trends of spectral features with respect to a given physical parameter but not their absolute strengths. Line blends are easy to recognize when blended features have different behavior with respect to some physical stellar parameter. The use of sensitivity map is therefore complementary to the use of indices. We give the EWs of the new indices measured for the IRTF star sample. This new and homogeneous set of EWs will be useful for stellar population synthesis models and can be used to get element-by-element abundances for unresolved stellar population studies in galaxies.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201423871 Abstract: In a previous paper we investigated the energy transfer of massive stars to the interstellar medium as a function of time and the geometrical configuration of three massive stars via 3D-mesh-refining hydrodynamics simulations, following the complete evolution of the massive stars and their supernovae except non-thermal processes . We analysed our ISM simulation results with the help of spectra for plasma temperatures between 0.1 and 10 keV and computed the spectral evolution and the spatio-temporal distribution of the hot gas. Results. Despite significant input of high temperature gas from supernovae and fast stellar winds, the resulting thermal X-ray spectra are generally very soft, with most of the emission well below 1 keV. We show that this is due to mixing triggered by resolved hydrodynamic instabilities. Supernovae enhance the X-ray luminosity of a superbubble by 1-2 orders of magnitude for a time span of about 0.1 Myr; longer if a supernova occurs in a larger superbubble and shorter in higher energy bands. Peak superbubble luminosities of the order of 10^{36} erg/s are reproduced well. The strong decay of the X-ray luminosity is due to bubble expansion, hydrodynamic instabilities related to the acceleration of the superbubble's shell thanks to the sudden energy input, and subsequent mixing. We also find global oscillations of our simulated superbubbles, which produce spatial variations of the X-ray spectrum, similar to what we see in the Orion-Eridanus cavity. We calculated the fraction of energy emitted in X-rays and find that with a value of a few times 10^{-4}, it is about a factor of ten below the measurements for nearby galaxies.
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