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Prompt optical observations of Fermi-LAT bursts and GRB 090902B  [PDF]
S. B. Pandey,Carl W. Akerlof,W. Zheng,F. Yuan
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Observations of high energy emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) constrain the extreme physical conditions associated with these energetic cosmic explosions. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, a pair conversion telescope, observes energetic quanta from 30 MeV to > 300 GeV. Synergy of the LAT with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) enlarges the energy coverage to ~ 7.5 decades, very useful for studying the GRB emission itself. Prompt optical observations and their possible correlations with photon emission at LAT energies help our understanding of the physical mechanisms behind these events. The prompt response times and large fields of of the ROTSE-III telescopes make afterglow observations possible for Fermi bursts with ~ 1 degree localized errors. As an example, GRB 090902B, was observed starting ~ 4803 s after the burst. This is the earliest ground-based optical detection ever made for long-duration bursts sensed by the LAT. The ROTSE detection classifies the optical afterglow of GRB 090902B as one of the brightest.
Afterglow Observations of Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Bursts and the Emerging Class of Hyper-Energetic Events  [PDF]
S. B. Cenko,D. A. Frail,F. A. Harrison,J. B. Haislip,D. E. Reichart,N. R. Butler,B. E. Cobb,A. Cucchiara,E. Berger,J. S. Bloom,P. Chandra,D. B. Fox,D. A. Perley,J. X. Prochaska,A. V. Filippenko,K. Glazebrook,K. M. Ivarsen,M. M. Kasliwal,S. R. Kulkarni,A. P. LaCluyze,S. Lopez,A. N. Morgan,M. Pettini,V. R. Rana
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/732/1/29
Abstract: We present broadband (radio, optical, and X-ray) light curves and spectra of the afterglows of four long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs 090323, 090328, 090902B, and 090926A) detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on the Fermi satellite. With its wide spectral bandpass, extending to GeV energies, Fermi is sensitive to GRBs with very large isotropic energy releases (10e54 erg). Although rare, these events are particularly important for testing GRB central-engine models. When combined with spectroscopic redshifts, our afterglow data for these four events are able to constrain jet collimation angles, the density structure of the circumburst medium, and both the true radiated energy release and the kinetic energy of the outflows. In agreement with our earlier work, we find that the relativistic energy budget of at least one of these events (GRB 090926A) exceeds the canonical value of 10e51 erg by an order of magnitude. Such energies pose a severe challenge for models in which the GRB is powered by a magnetar or neutrino-driven collapsar, but remain compatible with theoretical expectations for magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) collapsar models. Our jet opening angles (theta) are similar to those found for pre-Fermi GRBs, but the large initial Lorentz factors (Gamma_0) inferred from the detection of GeV photons imply theta Gamma_0 ~ 70-90, values which are above those predicted in MHD models of jet acceleration. Finally, we find that these Fermi-LAT events preferentially occur in a low-density circumburst environment, and we speculate that this might result from the lower mass-loss rates of their lower-metallicity progenitor stars. Future studies of Fermi-LAT afterglows in the radio with the order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity offered by the EVLA should definitively establish the relativistic energy budgets of these events.
Fermi Observations of GRB 090902B: A Distinct Spectral Component in the Prompt and Delayed Emission  [PDF]
The Fermi/GBM collaboration,The Fermi/LAT Collaborations,The Swift Team
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/706/1/L138
Abstract: We report on the observation of the bright, long gamma-ray burst, GRB 090902B, by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on-board the Fermi observatory. This was one of the brightest GRBs to have been observed by the LAT, which detected several hundred photons during the prompt phase. With a redshift of z = 1.822, this burst is among the most luminous detected by Fermi. Time-resolved spectral analysis reveals a significant power-law component in the LAT data that is distinct from the usual Band model emission that is seen in the sub-MeV energy range. This power-law component appears to extrapolate from the GeV range to the lowest energies and is more intense than the Band component both below $\sim$ 50 keV and above 100 MeV. The Band component undergoes substantial spectral evolution over the entire course of the burst, while the photon index of the power-law component remains constant for most of the prompt phase, then hardens significantly towards the end. After the prompt phase, power-law emission persists in the LAT data as late as 1 ks post-trigger, with its flux declining as $t^{-1.5}$. The LAT detected a photon with the highest energy so far measured from a GRB, $33.4_{-3.5}^{+2.7}$ GeV. This event arrived 82 seconds after the GBM trigger and $\sim$ 50 seconds after the prompt phase emission had ended in the GBM band. We discuss the implications of these results for models of GRB emission and for constraints on models of the Extragalactic Background Light.
On GRB Physics Revealed by FERMI/LAT  [PDF]
Zhuo Li
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We discuss the implications of Fermi/LAT observations on several aspects of gamma-ray burst (GRB) physics, including the radiation process, the emission sites, the bulk Lorentz factor, and the pre-shock magnetic field: (1) MeV-range emission favors synchrotron process but the highest energy (>10GeV) emission may not be synchrotron origin, more likely inverse Compton origin; (2) GRB should have multi-zone emission region, with MeV emission produced at smaller radii while optical and >100MeV emission at larger radii; (3) the bulk Lorentz factor can be a few 100's, much lower than 10^3, in multi-zone model; (4) the upstream magnetic field of afterglow shock is strongly amplified to be at least in mG scale.
The upstream magnetic field of collisionless GRB shocks: constraint by Fermi-LAT observations  [PDF]
Zhuo Li,Xiao-Hong Zhao
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2011/05/008
Abstract: Long-lived >100 MeV emission has been a common feature of most Fermi-LAT detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), e.g., detected up to ~10^3s in long GRBs 080916C and 090902B and ~10^2s in short GRB 090510. This emission is consistent with being produced by synchrotron emission of electrons accelerated to high energy by the relativistic collisionless shock propagating into the weakly magnetized medium. Here we show that this high-energy afterglow emission constrains the preshock magnetic field to satisfy 1(n/1cc)^{9/8} mG
GRB 090902B: afterglow observations and implications  [PDF]
S. B. Pandey,C. A. Swenson,D. A. Perley,C. Guidorzi,K. Wiersema,D. Malesani,C. Akerlof,M. C. B. Ashley,D. Bersier,Z. Cano,A. Gomboc,I. Ilyin,P. Jakobsson,I. K. W. Kleiser,S. Kobayashi,C. Kouveliotou,A. J. Levan,T. A. McKay,A. Melandri,C. J. Mottram,C. G. Mundell,P. T. O'Brien,A. Phillips,J. M. Rex,M. H. Siegel,R. J. Smith,I. A. Steele,G. Stratta,N. R. Tanvir,D. Weights,S. A. Yost,F. Yuan,W. Zheng
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/714/1/799
Abstract: The optical-infrared afterglow of the LAT-detected long duration burst, GRB 090902B, has been observed by several instruments. The earliest detection by ROTSE-IIIa occurred 80 minutes after detection by the GBM instrument onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, revealing a bright afterglow and a decay slope suggestive of a reverse shock origin. Subsequent optical-IR observations followed the light curve for 6.5 days. The temporal and spectral behavior at optical-infrared frequencies is consistent with synchrotron fireball model predictions; the cooling break lies between optical and XRT frequencies ~ 1.9 days after the burst. The inferred electron energy index is $p = 1.8 \pm 0.2$, which would however imply an X-ray decay slope flatter than observed. The XRT and LAT data have similar spectral indices and the observed steeper value of the LAT temporal index is marginally consistent with the predicted temporal decay in the radiative regime of the forward shock model. Absence of a jet break during the first 6 days implies a collimation-corrected $\gamma$-ray energy $E_{\gamma} > 2.2\times10^{52}\rm$ ergs, one of the highest ever seen in a long-duration GRBs. More events combining GeV photon emission with multi-wavelength observations will be required to constrain the nature of the central engine powering these energetic explosions and to explore the correlations between energetic quanta and afterglow emission.
GRB observations by Fermi LAT revisited: new candidates found  [PDF]
G. I. Rubtsov,M. S. Pshirkov,P. G. Tinyakov
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-3933.2011.01197.x
Abstract: We search the Fermi-LAT photon database for an extended gamma-ray emission which could be associated with any of the 581 previously detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) visible to the Fermi-LAT. For this purpose we compare the number of photons with energies E > 100 MeV and E > 1 GeV which arrived in the first 1500 seconds after the burst from the same region, to the expected background. We require that the expected number of false detections does not exceed 0.05 for the entire search and find the high-energy emission in 19 bursts, four of which (GRB 081009, GRB 090720B, GRB 100911 and GRB 100728A) were previously unreported. The first three are detected at energies above 100 MeV, while the last one shows a statistically significant signal only above 1 GeV.
A Comprehensive Analysis of Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Data. I. Spectral Components and Their Possible Physical Origins of LAT/GBM GRBs  [PDF]
Bin-Bin Zhang,Bing Zhang,En-Wei Liang,Yi-Zhong Fan,Xue-Feng Wu,Asaf Pe'er,Amanda Maxham,He Gao,Yun-Ming Dong
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/2/141
Abstract: We present a systematic analysis of the spectral and temporal properties of 17 GRBs co-detected by GBM and LAT on board the Fermi satellite by May 2010. We performed a time-resolved spectral analysis of all the bursts with the finest temporal resolution allowed by statistics, in order to avoid temporal smearing of different spectral components. We found that the time-resolved spectra of 14 out of 17 GRBs are best modeled with the Band function over the entire Fermi spectral range, which may suggest a common origin for emissions detected by LAT and GBM. GRB 090902B and GRB 090510 require the superposition between an MeV component and an extra power law component, with the former having a sharp cutoff above E_p. For GRB 090902B, this MeV component becomes progressively narrower as the time bin gets smaller, and can be fit with a Planck function as the time bin becomes small enough. In general, we speculate that phenomenologically there may be three elemental spectral components : (I) a Band-function component (e.g. in GRB 080916C) that extends in a wide energy range and does not narrow with reducing time bins, which may be of the non-thermal origin; (II) a quasi-thermal component (e.g. in GRB 090902B) with the spectra progressively narrowing with reducing time bins; and (III) another non-thermal power law component extending to high energies. The spectra of different bursts may be decomposed into one or more of these elemental components. We compare this sample with the BATSE sample and investigate some correlations among spectral parameters. We discuss the physical implications of the data analysis results for GRB prompt emission, including jet compositions (matter-dominated vs. Poynting-flux-dominated outflow), emission sites (internal shock, external shock or photosphere), as well as radiation mechanisms (synchrotron, synchrotron self-Compton, or thermal Compton upscattering).
Time stretching of the GeV emission of GRBs: Fermi-LAT data vs geometrical model  [PDF]
Maxim S. Piskunov,Grigory I. Rubtsov
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: It is known that the high energy $(> 100\,\text{MeV})$ emission of gamma-ray bursts is delayed with respect to the low energy emission. However, the dependence of light curves on energy has not been studied for the high energy bands. In this paper we consider the bursts observed by Fermi LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2011 August 1, for which at least $10$ photons were observed with the energy greater than $1\,\text{GeV}$. These include $4$ bursts: GRB 080916C, GRB 090510, GRB 090902B, and GRB 090926A. We use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare the light curves in the two bands, $100\,\text{MeV} < E < 1\,\text{GeV}$ and $E > 1\,\text{GeV}$. For GRB 080916C and GRB 090510 the light curves in the two bands are statistically compatible. However, for GRB 090926A, the higher-energy light curve is stretched compared to the lower-energy one with a statistical significance of $3.3 \sigma$ and, for GRB 090902B, on the contrary, the lower-energy curve is stretched with $2.3 \sigma$ significance. We argue that the observed diversity of stretching factors may be explained in a simple geometrical model. The model assumes that the jet opening angle depends on the emission energy in a way that the most energetic photons are radiated near the axis of the jet. All the bursts are considered equivalent in their rest frames and the observed light curves differ only due to different redshifts and view directions. The model conforms to the total burst energy constraint and matches the Fermi LAT observations of the fraction of GRBs visible in $100\,\text{MeV} < E < 1\,\text{GeV}$ band, which may be observed at higher energies. The model predicts the distribution of observable stretching factors, which may be tested in the future data. Finally, we propose a method to estimate observer's off-axis angle based on the stretching factor and the fraction of the high-energy photons.
Energetic Fermi/LAT GRB100414A: Energetic and Correlations  [PDF]
Yuji Urata,Kuiyun Huang,Kazutaka Yamaoka,Patrick P. Tsai,Makoto S. Tashiro
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/748/1/L4
Abstract: This study presents multi-wavelength observational results for energetic GRB100414A with GeV photons. The prompt spectral fitting using Suzaku/WAM data yielded spectral peak energies of E^src_peak of 1458.7 (+132.6, -106.6) keV and Eiso of 34.5(+2.0, -1.8) x 10^52 erg with z=1.368. The optical afterglow light curves between 3 and 7 days were effectively fitted according to a simple power law with a temporal index of alpha=-2.6 +/- 0.1. The joint light curve with earlier Swift/UVOT observations yields a temporal break at 2.3 +/- 0.2 days. This was the first \fermi/LAT detected event that demonstrated the clear temporal break in the optical afterglow. The jet opening angle derived from this temporal break was 5.8 degree, consistent with those of other well-observed long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-wavelength analyses in this study showed that GRB100414A follows E^src_peak-Eiso and E^src_peak-E_gamma correlations. The late afterglow revealed a flatter evolution with significant excesses at 27.2 days. The most straightforward explanation for the excess is that GRB100414A was accompanied by a contemporaneous supernova. The model light curve based on other GRB-SN events is marginally consistent with that of the observed lightcurve.
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