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A Far-Ultraviolet Survey of 47 Tucanae. I. Imaging  [PDF]
Christian Knigge,David. R. Zurek,Michael M. Shara,Knox S. Long
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/342835
Abstract: We present results from the imaging portion of a far-ultraviolet (FUV) survey of the core of 47 Tucanae. We have detected 767 FUV sources, 527 of which have optical counterparts in archival HST/WFPC2 images of the same field. Most of our FUV sources are main-sequence (MS) turn-off stars near the detection limit of our survey. However, the FUV/optical color-magnitude diagram (CMD) also reveals 19 blue stragglers (BSs), 17 white dwarfs (WDs) and 16 cataclysmic variable (CV) candidates. The BSs lie on the extended cluster MS, and four of them are variable in the FUV data. The WDs occupy the top of the cluster cooling sequence, down to an effective temperature of T_{eff} \simeq 20,000 K. Our FUV source catalog probably contains many additional, cooler WDs without optical counterparts. Finally, the CV candidates are objects between the WD cooling track and the extended cluster MS. Four of the CV candidates are previously known or suspected cataclysmics. All of these are bright and variable in the FUV. Another CV candidate is associated with the semi-detached binary system V36 that was recently found by Albrow et al. (2001). V36 has an orbital period of 0.4 or 0.8 days, blue optical colors and is located within 1 arcsec of a Chandra x-ray source. A few of the remaining CV candidates may represent chance superpositions or SMC interlopers, but at least half are expected to be real cluster members with peculiar colors. However, only a few of these CV candidates are possible counterparts to Chandra x-ray sources. Thus it is not yet clear which, if any, of them are true CVs, rather than non-interacting MS/WD binaries or Helium WDs.
Discovery of near-ultraviolet counterparts to millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae  [PDF]
L. E. Rivera-Sandoval,M. van den Berg,C. O. Heinke,H. N. Cohn,P. M. Lugger,P. Freire,J. Anderson,A. M. Serenelli,L. G. Althaus,A. M. Cool,J. E. Grindlay,P. D. Edmonds,R. Wijnands,N. Ivanova
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1810
Abstract: We report the discovery of the likely white dwarf companions to radio millisecond pulsars 47 Tuc Q and 47 Tuc S in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. These blue stars were found in near-ultraviolet images from the Hubble Space Telescope for which we derived accurate absolute astrometry, and are located at positions consistent with the radio coordinates to within 0.016 arcsec (0.2sigma). We present near-ultraviolet and optical colours for the previously identified companion to millisecond pulsar 47 Tuc U, and we unambiguously confirm the tentative prior identifications of the optical counterparts to 47 Tuc T and 47 Tuc Y. For the latter, we present its radio-timing solution for the first time. We find that all five near-ultraviolet counterparts have U300-B390 colours that are consistent with He white dwarf cooling models for masses ~0.16-0.3 Msun and cooling ages within ~0.1-6 Gyr. The Ha-R625 colours of 47 Tuc U and 47 Tuc T indicate the presence of a strong Ha absorption line, as expected for white dwarfs with an H envelope.
Detection of ionized gas in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae  [PDF]
P. C. Freire,M. Kramer,A. G. Lyne,F. Camilo,R. N. Manchester,N. D'Amico
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/323248
Abstract: We report the detection of ionized intracluster gas in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Pulsars in this cluster with a negative period derivative, which must lie in the distant half of the cluster, have significantly higher measured integrated electron column densities than the pulsars with a positive period derivative. We derive the plasma density within the central few pc of the cluster using two different methods which yield consistent values. Our best estimate of n_e = (0.067+-0.015)/cm^3 is about 100 times the free electron density of the ISM in the vicinity of 47 Tucanae, and the ionized gas is probably the dominant component of the intracluster medium.
The origin of an extended X-ray emission apparently associated with the globular cluster 47 Tucanae  [PDF]
Takayuki Yuasa,Kazuhiro Nakazawa,Kazuo Makishima
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/61.5.1107
Abstract: Using the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, we performed a 130 ks observation of an extended X-ray emission, which was shown by ROSAT and Chandra observations to apparently associate with the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The obtained $0.5-6$ keV spectrum was successfully fitted with a redshifted thin thermal plasma emission model whose temperature and redshift are $2.2^{+0.2}_{-0.3} $keV (at the rest frame) and $0.34\pm0.02$, respectively. Derived parameters, including the temperature, redshift, and luminosity, indicate that the extended X-ray source is a background cluster of galaxies, and its projected location falls, by chance, on the direction of the proper motion of 47 Tucanae.
Radio sources near the core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae  [PDF]
D. McConnell,J. G. Ables
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03157.x
Abstract: We present ATCA radio images of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae made at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz and provide an analysis of the radio sources detected within 5 arcmin of the cluster centre. 11 sources are detected, most of which are clustered about the core of 47 Tuc. Both of the pulsars in 47 Tuc whose positions are known can be identified with sources in the 1.4 GHz image. The source distribution has a characteristic radius of ~100 arcsec, larger than the 23 arcsec radius of the cluster core. We compare source positions with the positions of nine X-ray sources and find no correspondence.
ALMA reveals sunburn: CO dissociation around AGB stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae  [PDF]
Iain McDonald,Albert A. Zijlstra,Eric Lagadec,Gregory C. Sloan,Martha L. Boyer,Mikako Matsuura,Rowan J. Smith,Christina L. Smith,Jeremy A. Yates,Jacco Th. van Loon,Olivia C. Jones,Sofia Ramstedt,Adam Avison,Kay Justtanont,Hans Olofsson,Joris A. D. L. Blommaert,Steven R. Goldman,Martin A. T. Groenewegen
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv1968
Abstract: ALMA observations show a non-detection of carbon monoxide around the four most luminous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Stellar evolution models and star counts show that the mass-loss rates from these stars should be ~1.2-3.5 x 10^-7 solar masses per year. We would naively expect such stars to be detectable at this distance (4.5 kpc). By modelling the ultraviolet radiation field from post-AGB stars and white dwarfs in 47 Tuc, we conclude CO should be dissociated abnormally close to the stars. We estimate that the CO envelopes will be truncated at a few hundred stellar radii from their host stars and that the line intensities are about two orders of magnitude below our current detection limits. The truncation of CO envelopes should be important for AGB stars in dense clusters. Observing the CO (3-2) and higher transitions and targeting stars far from the centres of clusters should result in the detections needed to measure the outflow velocities from these stars.
Sulphur in the Globular Clusters 47 Tucanae and NGC 6752  [PDF]
L. Sbordone,M. Limongi,A. Chieffi,E. Caffau,H. -G. Ludwig,P. Bonifacio
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200811513
Abstract: The light elements Li, O, Na, Al, and Mg are known to show star to star variations in the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 6752. Such variations are interpreted as due to processing in a previous generation of stars. In this paper we investigate the abundances of the alpha-element sulphur, for which no previous measurements exist. In fact this element has not been investigated in any Galactic globular cluster so far. The only globular cluster for which such measurements are available is Terzan 7, which belongs to the Sgr dSph. We use high resolution spectra of the S I Mult. 1, acquired with the UVES spectrograph at the 8.2m VLT-Kueyen telescope, for turn-off and giant stars in the two globular clusters. The spectra are analyzed making use of ATLAS static plane parallel model atmospheres and SYNTHE spectrum synthesis. We also compute 3D corrections from CO5BOLD hydrodynamic models and apply corrections due to NLTE effects taken from the literature. In the cluster NGC 6752 sulphur has been measured only in four subgiant stars. We find no significant star to star scatter and a mean <[S/Fe]> = +0.49 +- 0.15, consistent with what observed in field stars of the same metallicity. In the cluster 47 Tuc we measured S in 4 turn-off and 5 subgiant stars with a mean <[S/Fe]> = +0.18 +- 0.14. While this result is compatible with no star to star scatter we notice a statistically significant correlation of the sulphur abundance with the sodium abundance and a tentative correlation with the silicon abundance.
The White Dwarf Distance to the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae and its Age  [PDF]
M. Zoccali,A. Renzini,S. Ortolani,A. Bragaglia,R. Bohlin,E. Carretta,F. R. Ferraro,R. Gilmozzi,J. B. Holberg,G. Marconi,R. M. Rich,F. Wesemael
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/320980
Abstract: We present a new determination of the distance (and age) of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) based on the fit of its white dwarf (WD) cooling sequence with the empirical fiducial sequence of local WD with known trigonometric parallax, following the method described in Renzini et al. (1996). Both the cluster and the local WDs were imaged with HST+WFPC2 using the same instrument setup. We obtained an apparent distance modulus of $(m-M)_V=13.27\pm0.14$ consistent with previous ground-based determinations and shorter than that found using HIPPARCOS subdwarfs. Coupling our distance determination with a new measure of the apparent magnitude of the main sequence turnoff, based on our HST data, we derive an age of $13\pm2.5$ Gyr.
Dust production and mass loss in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae  [PDF]
Iain McDonald,Martha L. Boyer,Jacco Th. van Loon,Albert A. Zijlstra
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/730/2/71
Abstract: Dust production among post-main-sequence stars is investigated in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) based on infrared photometry and spectroscopy. We identify metallic iron grains as the probable dominant opacity source in these winds. Typical evolutionary timescales of AGB stars suggest the mass-loss rates we report are too high. We suggest that this is because the iron grains are small or elongated and/or that iron condenses more efficiently than at solar metallicity. Comparison to other works suggests metallic iron is observed to be more prevalent towards lower metallicities. The reasons for this are explored, but remain unclear. Meanwhile, the luminosity at which dusty mass loss begins is largely invariant with metallicity, but its presence correlates strongly with long-period variability. This suggests that the winds of low-mass stars have a significant driver that is not radiation pressure, but may be acoustic driving by pulsations.
AGB Sodium Abundances in the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)  [PDF]
Christian I. Johnson,Iain McDonald,Catherine A. Pilachowski,Mario Mateo,John I. Bailey III,Maria J. Cordero,Albert A. Zijlstra,Jeffrey D. Crane,Edward Olszewski,Stephen A. Shectman,Ian Thompson
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-6256/149/2/71
Abstract: A recent analysis comparing the [Na/Fe] distributions of red giant branch (RGB) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752 found that the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars changes from 30:70 on the RGB to 100:0 on the AGB. The surprising paucity of Na-rich stars on the AGB in NGC 6752 warrants additional investigations to determine if the failure of a significant fraction of stars to ascend the AGB is an attribute common to all globular clusters. Therefore, we present radial velocities, [Fe/H], and [Na/Fe] abundances for 35 AGB stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc; NGC 104), and compare the AGB [Na/Fe] distribution with a similar RGB sample published previously. The abundances and velocities were derived from high resolution spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope. We find the average heliocentric radial velocity and [Fe/H] values to be =-18.56 km s^-1 (sigma=10.21 km s^-1) and <[Fe/H]>=-0.68 (sigma=0.08), respectively, in agreement with previous literature estimates. The average [Na/Fe] abundance is 0.12 dex lower in the 47 Tuc AGB sample compared to the RGB sample, and the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars is 63:37 on the AGB and 45:55 on the RGB. However, in contrast to NGC 6752, the two 47 Tuc populations have nearly identical [Na/Fe] dispersion and interquartile range values. The data presented here suggest that only a small fraction <20% of Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc may fail to ascend the AGB. Regardless of the cause for the lower average [Na/Fe] abundance in AGB stars, we find that Na-poor stars and at least some Na-rich stars in 47 Tuc evolve through the early AGB phase. [abridged]
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