Abstract:
The problem of kink stability of isothermal spherical self-similar flow in newtonian gravity is revisited. Using distribution theory we first develop a general formula of perturbations, linear or non-linear, which consists of three sets of differential equations, one in each side of the sonic line and the other along it. By solving the equations along the sonic line we find explicitly the spectrum, $k$, of the perturbations, whereby we obtain the stability criterion for the self-similar solutions. When the solutions are smoothly across the sonic line, our results reduce to those of Ori and Piran. To show such obtained perturbations can be matched to the ones in the regions outside the sonic line, we study the linear perturbations in the external region of the sonic line (the ones in the internal region are identically zero), by taking the solutions obtained along the line as the boundary conditions. After properly imposing other boundary conditions at spatial infinity, we are able to show that linear perturbations, satisfying all the boundary conditions, exist and do not impose any additional conditions on $k$. As a result, the complete treatment of perturbations in the whole spacetime does not alter the spectrum obtained by considering the perturbations only along the sonic line.

Abstract:
The evolution of weak discontinuity is investigated in the flat FRW universe with a single scalar field and with multiple scalar fields. We consider both massless scalar fields and scalar fields with exponential potentials. Then we find that a new type of instability, i.e. kink instability develops in the flat FRW universe with massless scalar fields. The kink instability develops with scalar fields with considerably steep exponential potentials, while less steep exponential potentials do not suffer from kink instability. In particular, assisted inflation with multiple scalar fields does not suffer from kink instability. The stability of general spherically symmetric self-similar solutions is also discussed.

Abstract:
A stability criterion is derived in general relativity for self-similar solutions with a scalar field and those with a stiff fluid, which is a perfect fluid with the equation of state $P=\rho$. A wide class of self-similar solutions turn out to be unstable against kink mode perturbation. According to the criterion, the Evans-Coleman stiff-fluid solution is unstable and cannot be a critical solution for the spherical collapse of a stiff fluid if we allow sufficiently small discontinuity in the density gradient field in the initial data sets. The self-similar scalar-field solution, which was recently found numerically by Brady {\it et al.} (2002 {\it Class. Quantum. Grav.} {\bf 19} 6359), is also unstable. Both the flat Friedmann universe with a scalar field and that with a stiff fluid suffer from kink instability at the particle horizon scale.

Abstract:
We study cosmological dynamics and phase space of a scalar field localized on the DGP brane. We consider both the minimally and nonminimally coupled scalar quintessence and phantom fields on the brane. In the nonminimal case, the scalar field couples with induced gravity on the brane. We present a detailed analysis of the critical points, their stability and late-time cosmological viability of the solutions in the phase space of the model.

Abstract:
We identify the kinks of a deformed O(3) linear Sigma model as the solutions of a set of first-order systems of equations; the above model is a generalization of the MSTB model with a three-component scalar field. Taking into account certain kink energy sum rules we show that the variety of kinks has the structure of a moduli space that can be compactified in a fairly natural way. The generic kinks, however, are unstable and Morse Theory provides the framework for the analysis of kink stability.

Abstract:
We demonstrate that the warped AdS3 black hole solutions of Topologically Massive Gravity are classically stable against massive scalar field perturbations by analysing the quasinormal and bound state modes of the scalar field. In particular, it is found that although classical superradiance is present it does not give rise to superradiant instabilities. The stability is shown to persist even when the black hole is enclosed by a stationary mirror with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This is a surprising result in view of the similarity between the causal structure of the warped AdS3 black hole and the Kerr spacetime in 3+1 dimensions. This work provides the foundations for the study of quantum field theory in this spacetime.

Abstract:
We show that Einstein's gravity coupled to a non-minimally coupled scalar field is stable even for high values of the scalar field, when the sign of the Einstein-Hilbert action is reversed. We also discuss inflationary solutions and a possible new mechanism of reheating.

Abstract:
The stability of the Cauchy horizon in spherically symmetric self-similar collapse is studied by determining the flux of scalar radiation impinging on the horizon. This flux is found to be finite.

Abstract:
We consider asymptotically anti de Sitter gravity coupled to a scalar field with mass slightly above the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound. This theory admits a large class of consistent boundary conditions characterized by an arbitrary function $W$. An important open question is to determine which $W$ admit stable ground states. It has previously been shown that the total energy is bounded from below if $W$ is bounded from below and the bulk scalar potential $V(\phi)$ admits a suitable superpotential. We extend this result and show that the energy remains bounded even in some cases where $W$ can become arbitrarily negative. As one application, this leads to the possibility that in gauge/gravity duality, one can add a double trace operator with negative coefficient to the dual field theory and still have a stable vacuum.

Abstract:
The scalar normal modes of higher dimensional gravitating kink solutions are derived. By perturbing to second order the gravity and matter parts of the action in the background of a five-dimensional kink, the effective Lagrangian of the scalar fluctuations is derived and diagonalized in terms of a single degree of freedom which invariant under infinitesimal diffeomorphisms. The spectrum of the normal modes is discussed and applied to the analysis of short distance corrections to Newton law.