Abstract:
A conditioned unitary transformation ($90^o$ polarization rotation) is performed at single-photon level. The transformation is realized by rotating polarization for one of the photons of a polarization-entangled biphoton state (signal photon) by means of a Pockel's cell triggered by the detection of the other (idler) photon after polarization selection. As a result, polarization degree for the signal beam changes from zero to the value given by the idler detector quantum efficiency. This result is relevant to practical realization of various quantum information schemes and can be used for developing a new method of absolute quantum efficiency calibration.

Abstract:
We investigate quantum measurement strategies capable of discriminating two coherent states probabilistically with significantly smaller error probabilities than can be obtained using non- probabilistic state discrimination. We apply a postselection strategy to the measurement data of a homodyne detector as well as a photon number resolving detector in order to lower the error probability. We compare the two different receivers with an optimal intermediate measurement scheme where the error rate is minimized for a fixed rate of inconclusive results. The photon number resolving (PNR) receiver is experimentally demonstrated and compared to an experimental realization of a homodyne receiver with postselection. In the comparison it becomes clear, that the perfromance of the new PNR receiver surpasses the performance of the homodyne receiver, which we proof to be optimal within any Gaussian operations and conditional dynamics.

Abstract:
We investigate various aspects of the Kondo singlet in a quantum dot (QD) electrostatically coupled to a mesoscopic detector. The two subsystems are represented by an entangled state between the Kondo singlet and the charge-dependent detector state. We show that the phase-coherence of the Kondo singlet is destroyed in a way that is sensitive to the charge-state information restored both in the magnitude and in the phase of the scattering coefficients of the detector. We also introduce the notion of the `conditional evolution' of the Kondo singlet under projective measurement on the detector. Our study reveals that the state of the composite system is disentangled upon this measurement. The Kondo singlet evolves into a particular state with a fixed number of electrons in the quantum dot. Its relaxation time is shown to be sensitive only to the QD-charge dependence of the transmission probability in the detector, which implies that the phase information is erased in this conditional evolution process. We discuss implications of our observations in view of the possible experimental realization.

Abstract:
In this work we implement a graph theoretical realization of local unitary transformations, implemented by single qubit Pauli gates, by adapting techniques of graph switching. This leads to the concept of local unitary equivalent graphs. We illustrate our method by a few, well known, local unitary transformations implemented by single qubit Pauli and Hadamard gates.

Abstract:
We report a method to realize the arbitrary inverse unitary transformation imposed by a single-mode fibre on photon's polarization by the succession of two quarter-wave plates and a half-wave plate. The process of realization is analysed on a Poincare sphere due to the fact that unitary transformation does not change the angle formed by polarization state vector. The method is meaningful in quantum communication experiment such as quantum teleportation, in which an unknown arbitrary quantum state should be kept to be unchanged in the case of using a single-mode fibre for time delay.

Abstract:
We report coherent operation of a singlet-triplet qubit controlled by the arrangement of two electrons in an adjacent double quantum dot. The system we investigate consists of two pairs of capacitively coupled double quantum dots fabricated by electrostatic gates on the surface of a GaAs heterostructure. We extract the strength of the capacitive coupling between qubit and double quantum dot and show that the present geometry allows fast conditional gate operation, opening pathways to multi-qubit control and implementation of quantum algorithms with spin qubits.

Abstract:
The BABAR detector operated successfully at the PEP-II asymmetric e+e- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory from 1999 to 2008. This report covers upgrades, operation, and performance of the collider and the detector systems, as well as the trigger, online and offline computing, and aspects of event reconstruction since the beginning of data taking.

Abstract:
Any lossless transformation on $n_{s}$ spatial and $n_{p}$ internal modes of light can be described by an $n_{s}n_{p}\times n_{s}n_{p}$ unitary matrix, but there is no known procedure to effect an arbitrary $n_{s}n_{p}\times n_{s}n_{p}$ unitary matrix on light in $n_{s}$ spatial and $n_{p}$ internal modes. We devise an algorithm to realize an arbitrary discrete unitary transformation on the combined spatial and internal degrees of freedom of light. Our realization uses beamsplitters and operations on internal modes to effect arbitrary linear transformations. The number of beamsplitters required to realize a unitary transformation is reduced as compared to existing realization by a factor $n_{p}^2/2$ at the cost of increasing the number of internal optical elements by a factor of two. Our algorithm thus enables the optical implementation of higher dimensional unitary transformations.

Abstract:
We present a method for computing the action of conditional linear optical transformations, conditioned on photon counting, for arbitrary signal states. The method is based on the Q-function, a quasi probability distribution for anti normally ordered moments. We treat an arbitrary number of signal and ancilla modes. The ancilla modes are prepared in an arbitrary product number state. We construct the conditional, non unitary, signal transformations for an arbitrary photon number count on each of the ancilla modes.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme for implementing a controlled unitary gate between two distant atoms directly communicating through a quantum transmission line. To achieve our goal, only a series of several coherent pulses are applied to the atoms. Our scheme thus requires no ancilla atomic qubit. The simplicity of our scheme may significantly improve the scalability of quantum computers based on trapped neutral atoms or ions.