Abstract:
We extend the notion of numerical stability of finite difference approximations to include hyperbolic systems that are first order in time and second order in space, such as those that appear in Numerical Relativity. By analyzing the symbol of the second order system, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for stability in a discrete norm containing one-sided difference operators. We prove stability for certain toy models and the linearized Nagy-Ortiz-Reula formulation of Einstein's equations. We also find that, unlike in the fully first order case, standard discretizations of some well-posed problems lead to unstable schemes and that the Courant limits are not always simply related to the characteristic speeds of the continuum problem. Finally, we propose methods for testing stability for second order in space hyperbolic systems.

Abstract:
We review recent efforts to re-formulate the Einstein equations for fully relativistic numerical simulations. In order to complete a long-term and accurate simulations of binary compact objects, people seek a robust set of equations against the violation of constraints. Many trials have revealed that mathematically equivalent sets of evolution equations show different numerical stability in free evolution schemes. In this article, we overview the efforts of the community, categorizing them into three directions: (1) modifications of the standard Arnowitt-Deser-Misner equations initiated by the Kyoto group (the so-called Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura equations), (2) rewriting the evolution equations in a hyperbolic form, and (3) construction of an "asymptotically constrained" system. We then introduce our series of works that tries to explain these evolution behaviors in a unified way using eigenvalue analysis of the constraint propagation equations. The modifications of (or adjustments to) the evolution equations change the character of constraint propagation, and several particular adjustments using constraints are expected to damp the constraint-violating modes. We show several set of adjusted ADM/BSSN equations, together with their numerical demonstrations.

Abstract:
Many numerical codes now under development to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity in 3+1 dimensional spacetimes employ the standard ADM form of the field equations. This form involves evolution equations for the raw spatial metric and extrinsic curvature tensors. Following Shibata and Nakamura, we modify these equations by factoring out the conformal factor and introducing three ``connection functions''. The evolution equations can then be reduced to wave equations for the conformal metric components, which are coupled to evolution equations for the connection functions. We evolve small amplitude gravitational waves and make a direct comparison of the numerical performance of the modified equations with the standard ADM equations. We find that the modified form exhibits much improved stability.

Abstract:
We study the stability properties of the Kidder-Scheel-Teukolsky (KST) many-parameter formulation of Einstein's equations for weak gravitational waves on flat space-time from a continuum and numerical point of view. At the continuum, performing a linearized analysis of the equations around flat spacetime, it turns out that they have, essentially, no non-principal terms. As a consequence, in the weak field limit the stability properties of this formulation depend only on the level of hyperbolicity of the system. At the discrete level we present some simple one-dimensional simulations using the KST family. The goal is to analyze the type of instabilities that appear as one changes parameter values in the formulation. Lessons learnt in this analysis can be applied in other formulations with similar properties.

Abstract:
Here we present a new method to study stability of the solutions to the Einstein equations. This method uses the canonical superenergy tensors which have been introduced in past in our papers.

Abstract:
We review recent efforts to re-formulate the Einstein equations for fully relativistic numerical simulations. The so-called numerical relativity (computational simulations in general relativity) is a promising research field matching with ongoing astrophysical observations such as gravitational wave astronomy. Many trials for longterm stable and accurate simulations of binary compact objects have revealed that mathematically equivalent sets of evolution equations show different numerical stability in free evolution schemes. In this article, we first review the efforts of the community, categorizing them into the following three directions: (1) modifications of the standard Arnowitt-Deser-Misner equations initiated by the Kyoto group, (2) rewriting of the evolution equations in hyperbolic form, and (3) construction of an "asymptotically constrained" system. We next introduce our idea for explaining these evolution behaviors in a unified way using eigenvalue analysis of the constraint propagation equations. The modifications of (or adjustments to) the evolution equations change the character of constraint propagation, and several particular adjustments using constraints are expected to diminish the constraint-violating modes. We propose several new adjusted evolution equations, and include some numerical demonstrations. We conclude by discussing some directions for future research.

Abstract:
Combining deeper insight of Einstein's equations with sophisticated numerical techniques promises the ability to construct accurate numerical implementations of these equations. We illustrate this in two examples, the numerical evolution of ``bubble'' and single black hole spacetimes. The former is chosen to demonstrate how accurate numerical solutions can answer open questions and even reveal unexpected phenomena. The latter illustrates some of the difficulties encountered in three-dimensional black hole simulations, and presents some possible remedies.

Abstract:
We study asymptotically constrained systems for numerical integration of the Einstein equations, which are intended to be robust against perturbative errors for the free evolution of the initial data. First, we examine the previously proposed "$\lambda$-system", which introduces artificial flows to constraint surfaces based on the symmetric hyperbolic formulation. We show that this system works as expected for the wave propagation problem in the Maxwell system and in general relativity using Ashtekar's connection formulation. Second, we propose a new mechanism to control the stability, which we call the ``adjusted system". This is simply obtained by adding constraint terms in the dynamical equations and adjusting its multipliers. We explain why a particular choice of multiplier reduces the numerical errors from non-positive or pure-imaginary eigenvalues of the adjusted constraint propagation equations. This ``adjusted system" is also tested in the Maxwell system and in the Ashtekar's system. This mechanism affects more than the system's symmetric hyperbolicity.

Abstract:
The Einstein evolution equations may be written in a variety of equivalent analytical forms, but numerical solutions of these different formulations display a wide range of growth rates for constraint violations. For symmetric hyperbolic formulations of the equations, an exact expression for the growth rate is derived using an energy norm. This expression agrees with the growth rate determined by numerical solution of the equations. An approximate method for estimating the growth rate is also derived. This estimate can be evaluated algebraically from the initial data, and is shown to exhibit qualitatively the same dependence as the numerically-determined rate on the parameters that specify the formulation of the equations. This simple rate estimate therefore provides a useful tool for finding the most well-behaved forms of the evolution equations.

Abstract:
Outer boundary conditions for strongly and symmetric hyperbolic formulations of 3D Einstein's field equations with a live gauge condition are discussed. The boundary conditions have the property that they ensure constraint propagation and control in a sense made precise in this article the physical degrees of freedom at the boundary. We use Fourier-Laplace transformation techniques to find necessary conditions for the well posedness of the resulting initial-boundary value problem and integrate the resulting three-dimensional nonlinear equations using a finite-differencing code. We obtain a set of constraint-preserving boundary conditions which pass a robust numerical stability test. We explicitly compare these new boundary conditions to standard, maximally dissipative ones through Brill wave evolutions. Our numerical results explicitly show that in the latter case the constraint variables, describing the violation of the constraints, do not converge to zero when resolution is increased while for the new boundary conditions, the constraint variables do decrease as resolution is increased. As an application, we inject pulses of ``gravitational radiation'' through the boundaries of an initially flat spacetime domain, with enough amplitude to generate strong fields and induce large curvature scalars, showing that our boundary conditions are robust enough to handle nonlinear dynamics. We expect our boundary conditions to be useful for improving the accuracy and stability of current binary black hole and binary neutron star simulations, for a successful implementation of characteristic or perturbative matching techniques, and other applications. We also discuss limitations of our approach and possible future directions.