Abstract:
Small world models are networks consisting of many local links and fewer long range 'shortcuts', used to model networks with a high degree of local clustering but relatively small diameter. Here, we concern ourselves with the distribution of typical inter-point network distances. We establish approximations to the distribution of the graph distance in a discrete ring network with extra random links, and compare the results to those for simpler models, in which the extra links have zero length and the ring is continuous.

Abstract:
For asexual organisms point mutations correspond to local displacements in the genotypic space, while other genotypic rearrangements represent long-range jumps. We investigate the spreading properties of an initially homogeneous population in a flat fitness landscape, and the equilibrium properties on a smooth fitness landscape. We show that a small-world effect is present: even a small fraction of quenched long-range jumps makes the results indistinguishable from those obtained by assuming all mutations equiprobable. Moreover, we find that the equilibrium distribution is a Boltzmann one, in which the fitness plays the role of an energy, and mutations that of a temperature.

Abstract:
The question addressed is whether magnetic materials based on physical small world networks are possible. Physical constraints, such as uniform bond length and embedding in three dimensions, are the new features added to make small world networks physical. Results are presented to further determine if physical small world networks can exist, and the effect of the small world connections on the critical phenomena of Ising models on such networks. Spectra of the Laplacian on randomly-collapsed bead-chain networks are studied. The scaling function for the order parameter of an Ising model with physical small world connections is presented.

Abstract:
For many infectious diseases, a small-world network on an underlying regular lattice is a suitable simplified model for the contact structure of the host population. It is well known that the contact network, described in this setting by a single parameter, the small-world parameter $p$, plays an important role both in the short term and in the long term dynamics of epidemic spread. We have studied the effect of the network structure on models of immune for life diseases and found that in addition to the reduction of the effective transmission rate, through the screening of infectives, spatial correlations may strongly enhance the stochastic fluctuations. As a consequence, time series of unforced Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) models provide patterns of recurrent epidemics with realistic amplitudes, suggesting that these models together with complex networks of contacts are the key ingredients to describe the prevaccination dynamical patterns of diseases such as measles and pertussis. We have also studied the role of the host contact strucuture in pathogen antigenic variation, through its effect on the final outcome of an invasion by a viral strain of a population where a very similar virus is endemic. Similar viral strains are modelled by the same infection and reinfection parameters, and by a given degree of cross immunity that represents the antigenic distance between the competing strains. We have found, somewhat surprisingly, that clustering on the network decreases the potential to sustain pathogen diversity.

Abstract:
Background Mental disorders are highly comorbid: people having one disorder are likely to have another as well. We explain empirical comorbidity patterns based on a network model of psychiatric symptoms, derived from an analysis of symptom overlap in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). Principal Findings We show that a) half of the symptoms in the DSM-IV network are connected, b) the architecture of these connections conforms to a small world structure, featuring a high degree of clustering but a short average path length, and c) distances between disorders in this structure predict empirical comorbidity rates. Network simulations of Major Depressive Episode and Generalized Anxiety Disorder show that the model faithfully reproduces empirical population statistics for these disorders. Conclusions In the network model, mental disorders are inherently complex. This explains the limited successes of genetic, neuroscientific, and etiological approaches to unravel their causes. We outline a psychosystems approach to investigate the structure and dynamics of mental disorders.

Abstract:
Many geophysical processes can be modelled by using interconnected networks. The small-world network model has recently attracted much attention in physics and applied sciences. In this paper, we try to use and modify the small-world theory to model geophysical processes such as diffusion and transport in disordered porous rocks. We develop an analytical approach as well as numerical simulations to try to characterize the pollutant transport and percolation properties of small-world networks. The analytical expression of system saturation time and fractal dimension of small-world networks are given and thus compared with numerical simulations.

Abstract:
A nonlinear small-world network model has been presented to investigate the effect of nonlinear interaction and time delay on the dynamic properties of small-world networks. Both numerical simulations and analytical analysis for networks with time delay and nonlinear interaction show chaotic features in the system response when nonlinear interaction is strong enough or the length scale is large enough. In addition, the small-world system may behave very differently on different scales. Time-delay parameter also has a very strong effect on properties such as the critical length and response time of small-world networks.

Abstract:
Many real life networks, such as the World Wide Web, transportation systems, biological or social networks, achieve both a strong local clustering (nodes have many mutual neighbors) and a small diameter (maximum distance between any two nodes). These networks have been characterized as small-world networks and modeled by the addition of randomness to regular structures. We show that small-world networks can be constructed in a deterministic way. This exact approach permits a direct calculation of relevant network parameters allowing their immediate contrast with real-world networks and avoiding complex computer simulations.

Abstract:
We quantify the dynamical implications of the small-world phenomenon. We consider the generic synchronization of oscillator networks of arbitrary topology, and link the linear stability of the synchronous state to an algebraic condition of the Laplacian of the graph. We show numerically that the addition of random shortcuts produces improved network synchronizability. Further, we use a perturbation analysis to place the synchronization threshold in relation to the boundaries of the small-world region. Our results also show that small-worlds synchronize as efficiently as random graphs and hypercubes, and more so than standard constructive graphs.

Abstract:
Small-world networks by Watts and Strogatz are a class of networks that are highly clustered, like regular lattices, yet have small characteristic path lengths, like random graphs. These characteristics result in networks with unique properties of regional specialization with efficient information transfer. Social networks are intuitive examples of this organization with cliques or clusters of friends being interconnected, but each person is really only 5-6 people away from anyone else. While this qualitative definition has prevailed in network science theory, in application, the standard quantitative application is to compare path length (a surrogate measure of distributed processing) and clustering (a surrogate measure of regional specialization) to an equivalent random network. It is demonstrated here that comparing network clustering to that of a random network can result in aberrant findings and networks once thought to exhibit small-world properties may not. We propose a new small-world metric, {\omega} (omega), which compares network clustering to an equivalent lattice network and path length to a random network, as Watts and Strogatz originally described. Example networks are presented that would be interpreted as small-world when clustering is compared to a random network but are not small-world according to {\omega}. These findings have significant implications in network science as small-world networks have unique topological properties, and it is critical to accurately distinguish them from networks without simultaneous high clustering and low path length.