Abstract:
Several surfactant molecules self-assemble in solution to form long, cylindrical, flexible wormlike micelles. These micelles can be entangled with each other leading to viscoelastic phases. The rheological properties of such phases are very interesting and have been the subject of a large number of experimental and theoretical studies in recent years. We shall report on our recent work on the macrorheology, microrheology and nonlinear flow behaviour of dilute aqueous solutions of a surfactant CTAT (Cetyltrimethylammonium Tosilate). This system forms elongated micelles and exhibits strong viscoelasticity at low concentrations ($\sim$ 0.9 wt%) without the addition of electrolytes. Microrheology measurements of $G(\omega)$ have been done using diffusing wave spectroscopy which will be compared with the conventional frequency sweep measurements done using a cone and plate rheometer. The second part of the paper deals with the nonlinear rheology where the measured shear stress $\sigma$ is a nonmonotonic function of the shear rate $\dot{\gamma}$. In stress-controlled experiments, the shear stress shows a plateau for $\dot{\gamma}$ larger than some critical strain rate, similar to the earlier reports on CPyCl/NaSal system. Cates et al have proposed that the plateau is a signature of mechanical instability in the form of shear bands. We have carried out extensive experiments under controlled strain rate conditions, to study the time-dependence of shear stress. The measured time series of shear stress has been analysed in terms of correlation integrals and Lyapunov exponents to show unambiguously that the behaviour is typical of low dimensional dynamical systems.

Abstract:
Chaos attractor behaviour is usually preserved if the four basic arithmetic operations, i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, or their compound, are applied. First-order differential systems of one-dimensional real discrete dynamical systems and nonautonomous real continuous-time dynamical systems are also dynamical systems and their Lyapunov exponents are kept, if they are twice differentiable. These two conclusions are shown here by the definitions of dynamical system and Lyapunov exponent. Numerical simulations support our analytical results. The conclusions can apply to higher order differential systems if their corresponding order differentials exist.

Abstract:
In this work we provide conditions for the existence of periodic solutions to nonlinear, second-order difference equations of the form \begin{equation*} y(t+2)+by(t+1)+cy(t)=g(t,y(t)) \end{equation*} where $c\neq 0$, and $g:\mathbb{Z}^+\times\mathbb{R}\to \mathbb{R}$ is continuous and periodic in $t$. Our analysis uses the Lyapunov-Schmidt reduction in combination with fixed point methods and topological degree theory.

Abstract:
The effects of the addition of sub-micrometer sized colloidal silica spheres on the linear and nonlinear rheology of semi-dilute solutions of a viscoelastic gel are studied. For a 1.4 wt.% solution of the surfactant CTAT, a peak in the zero shear rate viscosity $\eta_{\circ}$ is observed at approximately equal weight percents of silica and CTAT. This peak shifts to lower silica concentrations on increasing either the CTAT concentration or the surface charge on silica and disappears when the CTAT concentration is increased to 2.6wt%. The increases in $\eta_{\circ}$ and the high frequency plateau modulus G$_{\circ}$ on the introduction of SiO$_{2}$ are explained by considering the increasingly entangled wormlike micelles that are formed due to the enhanced screening of the electrostatic interactions. The observed decrease in the values of G$_{\circ}$ and $\eta_{\circ}$ at higher concentrations of silica particles is explained in terms of the formation of surfactant bilayers due to the adsorption of the positively charged cetyl trimethylammonium to the negatively charged silica.

Abstract:
Previous research has shown how dynamical systems theory provides a relevant framework for investigating decision-making behavior in sport. The aim of this study was to adopt concepts and tools from nonlinear dynamics in examining effects of boxer-target distance and perceived punching efficiency on emergent decision-making during a typical practice task in boxing. Results revealed the existence of critical values of scaled distances between boxers and targets for first time appearance and disappearance of a diverse range of boxing actions including jabs, hooks and uppercuts. Reasons for the diversity of actions were twofold: i) abrupt (qualitative) changes in the number of the possible punches, i.e. motor solutions to the hitting task; and ii), fine modification of the probabilities of selecting specific striking patterns. Boxers were able to exploit the emerging perception of strikeability, leading to a changing diversity of selected actions and a cascade of abrupt changes in the perceptual-motor work space of the task. Perceived efficiency of a punching action by the participants also changed as a function of the scaled distance to a target and was correlated with the probability of occurrence of specific boxing actions. Accordingly, scaled distance-dependent perceived efficiency seems an important perceptual constraint in the training task of punching a heavy bag in boxers

Abstract:
Colloidal dispersions are commonly encountered in everyday life and represent an important class of complex fluid. Of particular significance for many commercial products and industrial processes is the ability to control and manipulate the macroscopic flow response of a dispersion by tuning the microscopic interactions between the constituents. An important step towards attaining this goal is the development of robust theoretical methods for predicting from first-principles the rheology and nonequilibrium microstructure of well defined model systems subject to external flow. In this review we give an overview of some promising theoretical approaches and the phenomena they seek to describe, focusing, for simplicity, on systems for which the colloidal particles interact via strongly repulsive, spherically symmetric interactions. In presenting the various theories, we will consider first low volume fraction systems, for which a number of exact results may be derived, before moving on to consider the intermediate and high volume fraction states which present both the most interesting physics and the most demanding technical challenges. In the high volume fraction regime particular emphasis will be given to the rheology of dynamically arrested states.

Abstract:
We report our studies of the linear and nonlinear rheology of aqueous solutions of the surfactant cetyl trimethylammonium tosylate (CTAT) with varying amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl). The CTAT concentration is fixed at 42mM and the salt concentration is varied between 0mM to 120mM. On increasing the salt (NaCl) concentration, we see three distinct regimes in the zero-shear viscosity and the high frequency plateau modulus data. In regime I, the zero-shear viscosity shows a weak increase with salt concentration due to enhanced micellar growth. The decrease in the zero-shear viscosities with salt concentration in regimes I I and III can be explained in terms of inter-micellar branching. The most intriguing feature of our data however, is the anomalous behavior of the high frequency plateau modulus in regime II (0.12 $\le \frac{[NaCl]}{[CTAT]} \le$ 1. 42). In this regime, the plateau modulus {\it increases} with an increase in NaCl concentration. This is highly counter-intuitive, since the correlation length of concentration fluctuations and hence the plateau modulus $G_{\circ}$ are not expected to change appreciably in the semi-dilute regime. We propose to explain the changes in regime II in terms of the unbinding of the organic counterions (tosylate) from the CTA$^{+}$ surfaces on the addition of NaCl. In the nonlinear flow curves of the samples with high salt content, significant deviations from the predictions of the Giesekus model for entangled micelles are observed.

Abstract:
We review the experimental and theoretical results obtained during the past decade on the structure and rheology of wormlike micellar solutions. We focus on the linear and nonlinear viscoelasticity and emphasize the analogies with polymers. Based on a comprehensive survey of surfactant systems, the present study shows the existence of standard rheological behaviors for semidilute and concentrated solutions. One feature of this behavior is a shear banding transition associated with a stress plateau in the nonlinear mechanical response. For concentrated solutions, we show that in the plateau region the shear bands are isotropic and nematic.

Abstract:
A first principles approach to the nonlinear flow of dense suspensions is presented which captures shear thinning of colloidal fluids and dynamical yielding of colloidal glasses. The advection of density fluctuations plays a central role, suppressing the caging of particles and speeding up structural relaxation. A mode coupling approach is developed to explore these effects.

Abstract:
A scaling model is presented to analyze the nonlinear rheology of unentangled polymer melts filled with high concentration of small spherical particles. Assuming the majority of chains to be reversibly adsorbed to the surface of the particles, we show that the emergence of nonlinearity in the viscoelastic response of the composite system subjected to a 2D shear flow results from stretching of the adsorbed chains and increasing desorption rate of the adsorbed segments due to the imposed deformation. The steady-state shear viscosity of the mixture in nonlinear shear thinning regime follows the power law where is the applied shear rate. At large strain amplitude γ 0, the storage and loss moduli in strain sweep tests scale as and respectively.