Abstract:
Microscopic properties of low-energy spin dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductor are addressed in a framework of the Kondo lattice model including random distribution of magnetic dopants. Based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we derive an explicit dependence of the spin diffusion coefficient on the single-particle Green function which is directly evaluated by dynamical mean-field theory. In the paramagnetic state, the magnetic scattering has been manifested to suppress spin diffusion. In agreement with other ferromagnet systems, we also point out that the spin diffusion in diluted magnetic semiconductors at small carrier concentration displays a monotonic $1/T$-like temperature dependence. By investigating the spin diffusion coefficient on a wide range of the model parameters, the obtained results have provided a significant scenario to understand the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic diluted magnetic semiconductors.

Abstract:
In the work the analysis of crystal chemical researches of nickel borocarbides RNi2B2C (R = rare earth) is given. The reasons of representation of dependence of Tc from crystal chemical parameters by two separate curves for magnetic and nonmagnetic R are considered. Common for all R dependences of Tc from crystal chemical parameters similar existing in layered quasi-two-dimensional systems (HTSC cuprates and diborides) are established. The absence of influence on borocarbides Tc of magnetic properties R is determined. On the basis of the found correlations the radii of a number of rare earths are precised and Tc of compounds at various substitutions R are calculated.

Abstract:
The hole distribution in a double quantum well (QW) structure consisting of a magnetic and a nonmagnetic semiconductor QW is investigated as a function of temperature, the energy shift between the QWs, and other relevant parameters. When the itinerant holes mediate the ferromagnetic ordering, it is shown that a bistable state can be formed through hole redistribution, resulting in a significant change in the properties of the constituting magnetic QW (i.e., the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition). The model calculation also indicates a large window in the system parameter space where the bistability is possible. Hence, this structure could form the basis of a stable memory element that may be scaled down to a few hole regime.

Abstract:
A theory of the local magnetic response of a nonmagnetic impurity in a doped antiferromagnet, as relevant to the normal state in cuprates, is presented. It is based on the assumption of the overdamped collective mode in the bulk system and on the evidence, that equal-time spin correlations are only weakly renormalized in the vicinity of the impurity. The theory relates the Kondo-like behavior of the local susceptibility to the anomalous temperature dependence of the bulk magnetic susceptibility, where the observed increase of the Kondo temperature with doping reflects the crossover to the Fermi liquid regime and the spatial distribution of the magnetization is given by bulk antiferromagnetic correlations.

Abstract:
Ferrofluids containing nonmagnetic particles are called inverse ferrofluids. On the basis of the Ewald-Kornfeld formulation and the Maxwell-Garnett theory, we theoretically investigate the magnetophoretic force exerting on the nonmagnetic particles in inverse ferrofluids due to the presence of a nonuniform magnetic field, by taking into account the structural transition and long-range interaction. We numerically demonstrate that the force can be adjusted by choosing appropriate lattices, volume fractions, geometric shapes, and conductivities of the nonmagnetic particles, as well as frequencies of external magnetic fields.

Abstract:
We performed first-principle calculations based on the supercell and cluster approaches to investigate the neutral Al impurity in smoky quartz. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements suggest that the oxygens around the Al center undergo a polaronic distortion which localizes the hole being on one of the four oxygen atoms. We find that the screened exchange hybrid functional successfully describes this localization and improves on standard local density approaches or on hybrid functionals that do not include enough exact exchange such as B3LYP. We find a defect level at about 2.5 eV above the valence band maximum, corresponding to a localized hole in a O 2p orbital. The calculated values of the g tensor and the hyperfine splittings are in excellent agreement with experiment.

Abstract:
We study phase diagrams of the Hubbard model on anisotropic triangular lattices, which also represents a model for $\kappa$-type BEDT-TTF compounds. In contrast with mean-field predictions, path-integral renormalization group calculations show a universal presence of nonmagnetic insulator sandwitched by antiferromagnetic insulator and paramagnetic metals. The nonmagnetic phase does not show a simple translational symmetry breakings such as flux phases, implying a genuine Mott insulator. We discuss possible relevance on the nonmagnetic insulating phase found in $\kappa$-(ET)$_2$Cu$_2(CN)_3$.

Abstract:
We study nonmagnetic impurity effects in MgB$_{2}$ using the quasiclassical equations of superconductivity for a weak-coupling two-band model. Parameters in the model are fixed so as to reproduce experiments on MgB$_{2}$ as closely as possible. The quasiparticle density of states and the specific heat are calculated for various values of the interband impurity scattering. The density of states changes gradually from a two-gap structure into the conventional single-gap structure as the interband scattering increases. It is found that the excitation threshold is not a monotonic function of the interband scattering. Calculated results for the specific heat are in good agreements with experiments on samples after irradiation.

Abstract:
The electronic reconstruction at the interface between two insulating oxides can give rise to a highly-conductive interface. In analogy to this remarkable interface-induced conductivity we show how, additionally, magnetism can be induced at the interface between the otherwise nonmagnetic insulating perovskites SrTiO3 and LaAlO3. A large negative magnetoresistance of the interface is found, together with a logarithmic temperature dependence of the sheet resistance. At low temperatures, the sheet resistance reveals magnetic hysteresis. Magnetic ordering is a key issue in solid-state science and its underlying mechanisms are still the subject of intense research. In particular, the interplay between localized magnetic moments and the spin of itinerant conduction electrons in a solid gives rise to intriguing many-body effects such as Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions, the Kondo effect, and carrier-induced ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors. The conducting oxide interface now provides a versatile system to induce and manipulate magnetic moments in otherwise nonmagnetic materials.

Abstract:
Muon spin relaxation experiments have been carried out in the Kondo compound PrInAg_2. The zero-field muon relaxation rate is found to be independent of temperature between 0.1 and 10 K, which rules out a magnetic origin (spin freezing or a conventional Kondo effect) for the previously-observed specific heat anomaly at \sim0.5 K. The low-temperature muon relaxation is quantitatively consistent with nuclear magnetism including hyperfine enhancement of the ^{141}Pr nuclear moment. This is strong evidence against a Pr^{3+} electronic magnetic moment, and for the \Gamma_3 crystalline-electric-field-split ground state required for a nonmagnetic route to heavy-electron behavior. The data imply the existence of an exchange interaction between neighboring Pr^{3+} ions of the order of 0.2 K in temperature units, which should be taken into account in a complete theory of a nonmagnetic Kondo effect in PrInAg_2.