Abstract:
Using the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter that has been recently constrained by the isospin diffusion data from intermediate-energy heavy ion collisions, we have studied the transition density and pressure at the inner edge of neutron star crusts, and they are found to be 0.040 fm^{-3} <= \rho_{t}<= 0.065 fm^{-3} and 0.01 MeV/fm^{3} <= P_{t} <= 0.26 MeV/fm^{3}, respectively, in both the dynamical and thermodynamical approaches. We have further found that the widely used parabolic approximation to the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter gives significantly higher values of core-crust transition density and pressure, especially for stiff symmetry energies. With these newly determined transition density and pressure, we have obtained an improved relation between the mass and radius of neutron stars based on the observed minimum crustal fraction of the total moment of inertia for Vela pulsar.

Abstract:
Depending on the density reached in the cores of neutron stars, such objects may contain stable phases of novel matter found nowhere else in the Universe. This article gives a brief overview of these phases of matter and discusses astrophysical constraints on the high-density equation of state associated with ultra-dense nuclear matter.

Abstract:
Depending on the density reached in the cores of neutron stars, such objects may contain stable phases of novel matter found nowhere else in the Universe. This article gives a brief overview of these phases of matter and discusses astrophysical constraints on the high-density equation of state associated with ultra-dense nuclear matter.

Abstract:
A direct method is developed to reconstruct the equation of state for high-density nuclear matter from the relationship between any two properties of neutron stars, such as masses, radii, moments of inertia, baryonic masses, binding energies, gravitational redshifts, and their combinations.

Abstract:
Recent neutron star observations set new constraints for the equation of state of baryonic matter. A chiral effective field theory approach is used for the description of neutron-dominated nuclear matter present in the outer core of neutron stars. Possible hybrid stars with quark matter in the inner core are discussed using a three-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model.

Abstract:
Understanding the equation of state (EOS) of cold nuclear matter, namely, the relation between the pressure and energy density, is a central goal of nuclear physics that cuts across a variety of disciplines. Indeed, the limits of nuclear existence, the collision of heavy ions, the structure of neutron stars, and the dynamics of core-collapse supernova, all depend critically on the equation of state of hadronic matter. In this contribution I will concentrate on the special role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the EOS of cold baryonic matter and its impact on the properties of neutron stars.

Abstract:
a remarkable fact about spherically-symmetric neutron stars in hydrostatic equilibrium - the so-called schwarzschild stars - is that the only physics that they are sensitive to is the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. as such, neutron stars provide a myriad of observables that may be used to constrain poorly known aspects of the nuclear interaction under extreme conditions of density. after discussing many of the fascinating phases encountered in neutron stars, i will address how powerful theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints may be used to place stringent limits on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter.

Abstract:
A remarkable fact about spherically-symmetric neutron stars in hydrostatic equilibrium - the so-called Schwarzschild stars - is that the only physics that they are sensitive to is the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. As such, neutron stars provide a myriad of observables that may be used to constrain poorly known aspects of the nuclear interaction under extreme conditions of density. After discussing many of the fascinating phases encountered in neutron stars, I will address how powerful theoretical, experimental, and observational constraints may be used to place stringent limits on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter.

Abstract:
I study the effect of nuclear equation of state on the r-mode instability of a rotating neutron star. I consider the case where the crust of the neutron star is perfectly rigid and I employ the related theory introduced by Lindblom {\it et al.} \cite{Lidblom-2000}. The gravitational and the viscous time scales, the critical angular velocity and the critical temperature are evaluated by employing a phenomenological nuclear model for the neutron star matter. The predicted equations of state for the $\beta$-stable nuclear matter are parameterized by varying the slope $L$ of the symmetry energy at saturation density on the interval $72.5 \ {\rm MeV} \leq L \leq 110 \ {\rm MeV}$. The effects of the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy on r-mode instability properties and the time evolution of the angular velocity are presented and analyzed. A comparison of theoretical predictions with observed neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) and millisecond radio pulsars (MSRPs) is also performed and analyzed. I estimate that it may be possible to impose constraints on the nuclear equation of state, by a suitable treatment of observations and theoretical predictions of the rotational frequency and spindown rate evolution of known neutron stars.

Abstract:
Using a set of model equations of state satisfying the latest constraints from both terrestrial nuclear experiments and astrophysical observations as well as state-of-the-art nuclear many-body calculations of the pure neutron matter equation of state, the tidal polarizability of canonical neutron stars in coalescing binaries is found to be a very sensitive probe of the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy which is among the most uncertain properties of dense neutron-rich nucleonic matter. Moreover, it changes less than $\pm 10%$ by varying various properties of symmetric nuclear matter and symmetry energy around the saturation density within their respective ranges of remaining uncertainty.