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Octonion Quantum Chromodynamics  [PDF]
B. C. Chanyal,P. S. Bisht,Tianjun Li,O. P. S. Negi
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10773-012-1222-7
Abstract: Starting with the usual definitions of octonions, an attempt has been made to establish the relations between octonion basis elements and Gell-Mann \lambda matrices of SU(3)symmetry on comparing the multiplication tables for Gell-Mann \lambda matrices of SU(3)symmetry and octonion basis elements. Consequently, the quantum chromo dynamics (QCD) has been reformulated and it is shown that the theory of strong interactions could be explained better in terms of non-associative octonion algebra. Further, the octonion automorphism group SU(3) has been suitably handled with split basis of octonion algebra showing that the SU(3)_{C}gauge theory of colored quarks carries two real gauge fields which are responsible for the existence of two gauge potentials respectively associated with electric charge and magnetic monopole and supports well the idea that the colored quarks are dyons.
Quaternion Octonion Reformulation of Grand Unified Theories  [PDF]
Pushpa,P. S. Bisht,Tianjun Li,O. P. S. Negi
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10773-012-1204-9
Abstract: In this paper, Grand Unified theories are discussed in terms of quaternions and octonions by using the relation between quaternion basis elements with Pauli matrices and Octonions with Gell Mann \lambda matrices. Connection between the unitary groups of GUTs and the normed division algebra has been established to re-describe the SU(5)gauge group. We have thus described the SU(5)gauge group and its subgroup SU(3)_{C}\times SU(2)_{L}\times U(1) by using quaternion and octonion basis elements. As such the connection between U(1) gauge group and complex number, SU(2) gauge group and quaternions and SU(3) and octonions is established. It is concluded that the division algebra approach to the the theory of unification of fundamental interactions as the case of GUTs leads to the consequences towards the new understanding of these theories which incorporate the existence of magnetic monopole and dyon.
Structure of wrap groups of quaternion and octonion fiber bundles  [PDF]
S. V. Ludkovsky
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: This article is devoted to the investigation of structure of wrap groups of connected fiber bundles over the fields of real $\bf R$, complex $\bf C$ numbers, the quaternion skew field $\bf H$ and the octonion algebra $\bf O$. Iterated wrap groups are studied as well. Their smashed products are constructed.
Angular Momentum, Quaternion, Octonion, and Lie-Super Algebra osp(1,2)  [PDF]
Susumu Okubo
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We will derive both quaternion and octonion algebras as the Clebsch-Gordan algebras based upon the su(2) Lie algebra by considering angular momentum spaces of spin one and three. If we consider both spin 1 and 1/2 states, then the same method will lead to the Lie-super algebra osp(1,2). Also, the quantum generalization of the method is discussed on the basis of the quantum group $su_q(2)$.
Normal families of functions and groups of pseudoconformal diffeomorphisms of quaternion and octonion variables  [PDF]
S. V. Ludkovsky
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: This paper is devoted to the specific class of pseudoconformal mappings of quaternion and octonion variables. Normal families of functions are defined and investigated. Four criteria of a family being normal are proven. Then groups of pseudoconformal diffeomorphisms of quaternion and octonion manifolds are investigated. It is proven, that they are finite dimensional Lie groups for compact manifolds. Their examples are given. Many charactersitic features are found in comparison with commutative geometry over $\bf R$ or $\bf C$.
An efficient method for solving equations in generalized quaternion and octonion algebras  [PDF]
Cristina Flaut,Vitalii Shpakivskyi
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: Quaternions often appear in wide areas of applied science and engineering such as wireless communications systems, mechanics, etc. It is known that are two types of non-isomorphic generalized quaternion algebras, namely: the algebra of quaternions and the algebra of coquaternions. In this paper, we present the formulae to pass from a basis in the generalized quaternion algebras to a basis in the division quaternions algebra or to a basis in the coquaternions algebra and vice versa. The same result was obtained for the generalized octonion algebra. Moreover, we emphasize the applications of these results to the algebraic equations and De Moivre s formula in generalized quaternion algebras and in generalized octonion division algebras.
A quantum octonion algebra  [PDF]
Georgia Benkart,José M. Pérez-Izquierdo
Mathematics , 1998,
Abstract: Using the natural irreducible 8-dimensional representation and the two spin representations of the quantum group $U_q$(D$_4$) of D$_4$, we construct a quantum analogue of the split octonions and study its properties. We prove that the quantum octonion algebra satisfies the q-Principle of Local Triality and has a nondegenerate bilinear form which satisfies a q-version of the composition property. By its construction, the quantum octonion algebra is a nonassociative algebra with a Yang-Baxter operator action coming from the R-matrix of $U_q$(D$_4$). The product in the quantum octonions is a $U_q$(D$_4$)-module homomorphism. Using that, we prove identities for the quantum octonions, and as a consequence, obtain at $q = 1$ new ``representation theory'' proofs for very well-known identities satisfied by the octonions. In the process of constructing the quantum octonions we introduce an algebra which is a q-analogue of the 8-dimensional para-Hurwitz algebra.
Quaternion-Octonion Unitary Symmetries and Analogous Casimir Operators  [PDF]
Pushpa,P. S. Bisht,Tianjun Li,O. P. S. Negi
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10773-012-1258-8
Abstract: An attempt has been made to investigate the global SU(2) and SU(3) unitary flavor symmetries systematically in terms of quaternion and octonion respectively. It is shown that these symmetries are suitably handled with quaternions and octonions in order to obtain their generators, commutation rules and symmetry properties. Accordingly, Casimir operators for SU(2)and SU(3) flavor symmetries are also constructed for the proper testing of these symmetries in terms of quaternions and octonions.
Lipschitz minimality of the multiplication maps of unit complex, quaternion and octonion numbers  [PDF]
Haomin Wen
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.2140/agt.2014.14.407
Abstract: We prove that the multiplication maps $\mathbb{s}^n \times \mathbb{s}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{s}^n$ ($n = 1, 3, 7$) for unit complex, quaternion and octonion numbers are, up to isometries of domain and range, the unique Lipschitz constant minimizers in their homotopy classes. Other geometrically natural maps, such as projections of Hopf fibrations, have already been shown to be, up to isometries, the unique Lipschitz constant minimizers in their homotopy classes, and it is suspected that this may hold true for all Riemannian submersions of compact homogeneous spaces.
QUANTUM CHROMODYNAMICS  [PDF]
A. Pich
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: These lectures provide an overview of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the $SU(3)_C$ gauge theory of the strong interactions. After briefly reviewing the empirical considerations which lead to the introduction of {\it colour}, the QCD Lagrangian is discussed. The running of the strong coupling and the associated property of {\it Asymptotic Freedom} are analyzed. Some selected experimental tests and the present knowledge of $\alpha_s$ are summarized. A short description of the QCD flavour symmetries and the {\it dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry} is also given.
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