Abstract:
Few years ago, Cho and Vilenkin have proposed that topological defects can arise in symmetry breaking models without having degenerate vacua. These types of defects are known as vacuumless defects. In the present work, the gravitational field of a vacuumless global string and global monopole have been investigated in the context of Lyra geometry. We find the metric of the vacuumless global string and global monopole in the weak field approximations. It has been shown that the vacuumless global string can have repulsive whereas global monopole exerts attractive gravitational effects on a test particle. It is dissimilar to the case studied in general relativity.

Abstract:
It has been recently shown that topological defects can arise in symmetry breaking models where the scalar field potential $V(\phi)$ has no minima and is a monotonically decreasing function of $|\phi|$. Here we study the gravitational fields produced by such vacuumless defects in the cases of both global and gauge symmetry breaking. We find that a global monopole has a strongly repulsive gravitational field, and its spacetime has an event horizon similar to that in de Sitter space. A gauge monopole spacetime is essentially that of a magnetically charged black hole. The gravitational field of a global string is repulsive and that of a gauge string is attractive at small distances and repulsive at large distances. Both gauge and global string spacetimes have singularities at a finite distance from the string core.

Abstract:
We obtain solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations in the gravitational fields of vacuumless defects. We calculate the energy levels and the current, respectively, in the scalar and spinor cases. In all these situations we emphasize the role played by the defects on the solutions, energy and current.

Abstract:
Spacetimes with everywhere vanishing curvature tensor, but with torsion different from zero only on world sheets that represent closed loops in ordinary space are presented, also defects along open curves with end points at infinity are studied. The case of defects along timelike loops is also considered and the geodesics in these spaces are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
Orbifolding two-dimensional quantum field theories by a symmetry group can involve a choice of discrete torsion. We apply the general formalism of `orbifolding defects' to study and elucidate discrete torsion for topological field theories. In the case of Landau-Ginzburg models only the bulk sector had been studied previously, and we re-derive all known results. We also introduce the notion of `projective matrix factorisations', show how they naturally describe boundary and defect sectors, and we further illustrate the efficiency of the defect-based approach by explicitly computing RR charges. Roughly half of our results are not restricted to Landau-Ginzburg models but hold more generally, for any topological field theory. In particular we prove that for a pivotal bicategory, any two objects of its orbifold completion that have the same base are orbifold equivalent. Equivalently, from any orbifold theory (including those based on nonabelian groups) the original unorbifolded theory can be obtained by orbifolding via the `quantum symmetry defect'.

Abstract:
The theory of distributions in non-Riemannian spaces is used to obtain exact static thin domain wall solutions of Einstein-Cartan equations of gravity. Curvature $ \delta $-singularities are found while Cartan torsion is given by Heaviside functions. Weitzenb\"{o}ck planar walls are caracterized by torsion $\delta$-singularities and zero curvature. It is shown that Weitzenb\"{o}ck static thin domain walls do not exist exactly as in general relativity. The global structure of Weitzenb\"{o}ck nonstatic torsion walls is investigated.

Abstract:
Space time is described as a continuum four-dimensional medium similar to ordinary elastic continua. Exploiting the analogy internal stress states are considered. The internal ''stress'' is originated by the presence of defects. The defects are described according to the typical Volterra process. The case of a point defect in an otherwise isotropic four-dimensional medium is discussed showing that the resulting metric tensor corresponds to an expanding (or contracting) universe filled up with a non-zero energy-momentum density.

Abstract:
The gravitational fields of vacuumless global and gauge strings have been investigated in the context of Einstein Cartan theory under the weak field assumption of the field equations. It has been shown that global string and gauge string can have only repulsive gravitational effect on a test particle.

Abstract:
The gravitational fields of vacuumless global and gauge strings have been studied in Brans-Dicke theory under the weak field assumption of the field equations. It has been shown that both global and gauge string can have repulsive as well as attractive gravitational effect in Brans-Dicke theory which is not so in General Relativity.

Abstract:
Topological defects can arise in symmetry breaking models where the scalar field potential $V(\phi)$ has no minima and is a monotonically decreasing function of $|\phi|$. The properties of such vacuumless defects are quite different from those of the ``usual'' strings and monopoles. In some models such defects can serve as seeds for structure formation, or produce an appreciable density of mini-black holes.