Abstract:
We study the low-energy excitations of the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain and $N$-leg ($N$=2, 3, 4) ladders in a staggered magnetic field $h_s$. We show that $h_s$ induces gap and midgap states in all the cases and examine their field scaling behavior. A modified boundary scheme is devised to extract accurate bulk excitation behavior. The gap values converge rapidly as $N$ increases, leading to a field scaling exponent $\gamma=1/2$ for both the longitudinal and transverse gaps of the square lattice ($N \to \infty$). The midgap states induced by the boundary edge effects share the bulk gap scaling exponents but their overall scaling behavior in the large-N limit needs further investigation.

Abstract:
We have synthesized and characterized a new spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder: bis 5-iodo-2-aminopyridinium tetrabromocuprate(II) dihydrate. X-ray diffraction studies show the structure of the compound to consist of well isolated stacked ladders and the interaction between the Cu(2+) atoms to be due to direct Br...Br contacts. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetization studies show the compound to be in the strong-coupling limit, with the interaction along the rungs (J' ~ 13 K) much greater than the interaction along the rails (J ~ 1 K). Magnetic critical fields are observed near 8.3 T and 10.4 T, respectively, establishing the existence of the energy gap.

Abstract:
We have determined the ground state for both a ladder array of Josephson junctions and a ladder of thin superconducting wires. We find that the repulsive interaction between vortices falls off exponentially with separation. The fact that the interaction is short-range leads to novel phenomena. The ground state vortex density exhibits a complete devil's staircase as the applied magnetic field is increased, each step producing a pair of metal-insulator transitions. The critical fields in the staircase are all calculated analytically and depend only on the connectivity of the ladder and the area of the elementary plaquette. In particular the normal square ladder contains no vortices at all until the flux per plaquette reaches 0.5/sqrt{3} flux quanta.

Abstract:
We examine the influence of weak anisotropic interactions on the T=0 phase diagram of the frustrated two-leg Heisenberg ladder, a well-studied spin model exhibiting integer and fractional magnetization plateaux separated by gapless incommensurate states. We find that the Dzyaloshinskii--Moriya coupling may substantially modify the phase diagram so that the half-integer plateau and the surrounding gapless phases merge into a single Ising-ordered phase breaking the translational symmetry of the lattice. A different Ising order is found for a weakly frustrated ladder. Implications for experimental ladder and dimer systems are discussed.

Abstract:
In recent experiments bosonic [Atala et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 588 (2014), B. K. Stuhl et al., Science 349, 1514 (2015)] as well as fermionic ladders [M. Mancini et al., Science 349, 1510 (2015)] with a uniform flux were studied and different interesting many-body states were observed. Motivated by these experiments, we extend the uniform synthetic magnetic field to a periodic case and show that a commensurate synthetic magnetic field offers an alternative scheme to realize topological phases in many-body systems of ultra-cold Fermi gases in ladder-like optical lattices. Using the exact diagonalization, we numerically determine the topological band structure, edge states, non-zero Chern numbers, Hofstadter-like-butterfly spectrum, and a complete phase diagram of non-interacting fermionic ladders.

Abstract:
We report on a theoretical analysis, consisting of both numerical and analytic work, of the stability of synchronization of a ladder array of Josephson junctions under the influence of current induced magnetic fields. Surprisingly, we find that as the ratio of the mutual to self inductance of the cells of the array is increased a region of unstable behavior occurs followed by reentrant stable synchronization. Analytic work tells us that in order to understand fully the cause of the observed instabilities the behavior of the vertical junctions, sometimes ignored in analytic analyses of ladder arrays, must be taken into account.

Abstract:
We show that non-frustrated and frustrated ladders in a magnetic field can be systematically mapped onto an XXZ Heisenberg model in a longitudinal magnetic field in the limit where the rung coupling is the dominant one. This mapping is valid in the critical region where the magnetization goes from zero to saturation. It allows one to relate the properties of the critical phase ($H_c^1$, $H_c^2$, the critical exponents) to the exchange integrals and provide quantitative estimates of the frustration needed to create a plateau at half the saturation value for different models of frustration.

Abstract:
A comprehensive theoretical and experimental study is presented of the magnetic susceptibility versus temperature \chi(T) of spin S = 1/2 two- and three-leg Heisenberg ladders and ladder oxide compounds. Extensive quantum Monte Carlo simulations of \chi(T) were carried out for both isolated and coupled two-leg ladders with spatially anisotropic intraladder exchange. Accurate fits to these and related literature QMC data were obtained. We have also calculated the one- and two-magnon dispersion relations and the dynamical spin structure factor for anisotropic isolated 2 x 12 ladders. The exchange constants in the two-leg ladder compound SrCu2O3 are estimated from LDA+U calculations. We report the detailed crystal structure of SrCu2O3 and of the three-leg ladder compound Sr2Cu3O5. New experimental \chi(T) data are reported for the two-leg ladder cuprates SrCu2O3 and LaCuO_{2.5}, and for the (nominally) two-leg ladder vanadates CaV2O5 and MgV2O5. The new and literature \chi(T) data for these compounds and for Sr2Cu3O5 are modeled using our QMC \chi(T) simulation fits, and the exchange coupling constants between the spins-1/2 are thereby estimated for each material. The surpisingly strong spatial anisotropy of the bilinear intraladder exchange constants in the cuprate compounds is discussed together with the results of other experiments sensitive to this anisotropy. Recent theoretical predictions are discussed including those which indicate that a four-spin cyclic exchange interaction within a Cu4 plaquette is important to determining the magnetic properties and which can significantly influence the exchange interactions estimated from \chi(T) data assuming the presence of only bilinear exchange.

Abstract:
Employing the Jordan-Wigner transformation on a unique path and then making a mean-field treatment of the fermionic Hamiltonian, we semiquantitatively describe the spin-gap states of Heisenberg ladders in a field. The appearance of magnetization plateaux is clarified as a function of the number of legs.

Abstract:
Spin and chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass under magnetic fields are studied by large-scale equilibrium Monte Carlo simulations. It is found that the chiral-glass transition and the chiral-glass ordered state, which are essentially of the same character as their zero-field counterparts, occur under magnetic fields. The chiral-glass ordered state exhibits a one-step-like peculiar replica-symmetry breaking in the chiral sector, while it does not accompany the spin-glass order perpendicular to the applied field. Critical perperties of the chiral-glass transition are different from those of the standard Ising spin glass. Magnetic phase diagram of the model is constructed, which reveals that the chiral-glass state is quite robust against magnetic fields. The chiral-glass transition line has a character of the Gabay-Toulouse line of the mean-field model, yet its physical origin being entirely different. These numerical results are discussed in light of the recently developed spin-chirality decoupling-recoupling scenario. Implication to experimental phase diagram is also discussed.