Abstract:
The atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio is expected to be useful as a tracer of air-sea heat exchange, but this application has been hindered in part due to sampling artifacts. Here we show that the variability in δ(Ar/N2) due to thermal fractionation at the inlet can be on the order of 40-80 per meg, and we introduce the use of an aspirated solar shield that successfully minimizes such fractionation. The data collected using this new inlet have a mean diurnal cycle of 1.0 per meg or less, suggesting that any residual thermal fractionation effect is reduced to this level.

Abstract:
The atmospheric Ar/N2 ratio is expected to be useful as a tracer of air-sea heat exchange, but this application has been hindered in part due to sampling artifacts. Here we show that the variability in δ(Ar/N2) due to thermal fractionation at the inlet can be on the order of 40–80 per meg, and we introduce the use of an aspirated solar shield that successfully minimizes such fractionation. The data collected using this new inlet have a mean diurnal cycle of 1.0 per meg or less, suggesting that any residual thermal fractionation effect is reduced to this level.

Abstract:
Atmospheric neutrinos are produced during cascades initiated by the interaction of primary cosmic rays with air nuclei. In this paper, a measurement of the atmospheric \nu_\mu + \bar{\nu}_\mu energy spectrum in the energy range 0.1 - 200 TeV is presented, using data collected by the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope from 2008 to 2011. Overall, the measured flux is ~25% higher than predicted by the conventional neutrino flux, and compatible with the measurements reported in ice. The flux is compatible with a single power-law dependence with spectral index \gamma_{meas}=3.58\pm 0.12. With the present statistics the contribution of prompt neutrinos cannot be established.

Abstract:
Neutrino telescopes with large detection volumes can demonstrate that the current indications of neutrino oscillation are correct or if a better description can be achieved with non-standard alternatives. Observations of contained muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos can better constrain the allowed region for oscillations or determine the relevant parameters of non-standard models. We analyze the possibility of neutrino telescopes measuring atmospheric neutrino oscillations. We suggest adjustments to improve this potential. An addition of four densely-instrumented strings to the AMANDA II detector makes observations feasible. Such a configuration is competitive with current and proposed experiments.

Abstract:
The neutrino mass hierarchy can be determined, in principle, by measuring a phase in the disappearance oscillation probability in vacuum, without relying on the matter effect, using a single channel. This phase is not the same for the normal and inverted neutrino mass spectra. In this paper, we give a complete description and physics understanding of the method. The key feature of the method is to detect advancement (normal) or retardation (inverted) of the phase of the atmospheric-scale oscillation relative to the solar-scale oscillation. We then show that this method can be realized with the recently proposed resonant $\bar{\nu}_{e}$ absorption reaction enhanced by M\"ossbauer effect. The unique feature of this setup is the ultra-monochromaticity of the observed \bar{\nu}_{e}'s. Because of this feature the phase advancement or retardation of atmospheric-scale neutrino oscillation is detectable after 20 or more oscillations if the source and the target are made sufficiently compact in size. A quantitative estimate of the sensitivity to mass hierarchy resolution is given. We have also examined how a possible continuation of such experiment can be carried out in order also to achieve high precision (few %) determination of the solar-scale oscillation parameters \Delta m^2_{21} and \theta_{12}.

Abstract:
We have studied the prospects of measuring the CP violating phase with atmospheric neutrinos at a large magnetized iron calorimeter detector considering the muons (directly measurable) of the neutrino events generated by a MonteCarlo event generator Nuance. The effect of $\theta_{13}$ and $\delta_{CP}$ appears dominantly neither in atmospheric neutrino oscillation nor in solar neutrino oscillation, but appears as subleading in both cases. These are observable in range of $E \sim 1$ GeV for atmospheric neutrino, where solar and atmospheric oscillation couple. In this regime, the quasi-elastic events dominate and the energy resolution is very good, but the angular resolution is very poor. Unlike beam experiments this poor angular resolution acts against its measurements. However, we find that one can be able to distinguish $\delta_{CP}\approx 0^\circ$ and $180^\circ$ at 90% confidence level. We find no significant sensitivity for $\delta_{CP}\approx 90^\circ$ or $270^\circ$.

Abstract:
With the possible exception of gambling, meteorology, particularly precipitation forecasting, may be the area with which the general public is most familiar with probabilistic assessments of uncertainty. Despite the heavy use of stochastic models and statistical methods in weather forecasting and other areas of the atmospheric sciences, papers in these areas have traditionally been somewhat uncommon in statistics journals. We see signs of this changing in recent years and we have sought to highlight some present research directions at the interface of statistics and the atmospheric sciences in this special section.

Abstract:
For a large class of quantum systems the statistical properties of their spectrum show remarkable agreement with random matrix predictions. Recent advances show that the scope of random matrix theory is much wider. In this work, we show that the random matrix approach can be beneficially applied to a completely different classical domain, namely, to the empirical correlation matrices obtained from the analysis of the basic atmospheric parameters that characterise the state of atmosphere. We show that the spectrum of atmospheric correlation matrices satisfy the random matrix prescription. In particular, the eigenmodes of the atmospheric empirical correlation matrices that have physical significance are marked by deviations from the eigenvector distribution.

Abstract:
The potential of future high statistics atmospheric neutrino experiments is considered, having in mind currently discussed huge detectors of various technologies (water Cerekov, magnetized iron, liquid Argon). I focus on the possibility to use atmospheric data to determine the octant of $\theta_{23}$ and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The sensitivity to the $\theta_{23}$-octant of atmospheric neutrinos is competitive (or even superior) to long-baseline experiments. I discuss the ideal properties of a fictitious atmospheric neutrino detector to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

Abstract:
We discuss the impact of recent experimental results on the determination of atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters. We use all published results on atmospheric neutrinos, including the preliminary large statistics data of Super-Kamiokande. We re-analyze the data in terms of both $\nu_\mu \to \nu_\tau$ and $\nu_\mu \to \nu_e$ channels using new improved calculations of the atmospheric neutrino flux. We compare the sensitivity attained in atmospheric neutrino experiments with those of accelerator and reactor neutrino oscillation searches, including the recent Chooz experiment. We briefly comment on the implications of atmospheric neutrino data in relation to future searches for neutrino oscillations with long baselines, such as the K2K, MINOS, ICARUS and NOE experiments.