Abstract:
Ab initio calculations of optical-phonon deformation potentials (ODP's), i.e., d0, d30, d10 (val) and d10 (con) for sixteen semiconductors were carried out systematically. The calculations are based on the LMTO-ASA band-structure method within the framework of the frozen-phonon approximation model, in which the displacement of empty sphere is considered to match its atomic sphere partners, We have compared the d0 values obtained by several different theoretical calculation methods and studied the main factors affecting them. It is pointed out that the two different models (rhombohedral strain model and frozen-phonon model) for calculations will lead to different results of d0.

Abstract:
We present theoretical studies for the third-order elastic constants $C_{ijk}$ in zinc-blende nitrides AlN, GaN, and InN. Our predictions for these compounds are based on detailed ab initio calculations of strain-energy and strain-stress relations in the framework of the density functional theory. To judge the computational accuracy, we compare the ab initio calculated results for $C_{ijk}$ with experimental data available for Si and GaAs. We also underline the relation of the third-order elastic constants to other quantities characterizing anharmonic behaviour of materials, such as pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants and the mode Gr\"uneisen constants for long-wavelength acoustic modes.

Abstract:
Relativistic coupled-cluster (RCC) calculations have been performed to estimate the electromagnetic forbidden transition probabilities, oscillator strengths and lifetimes of many low-lying states of five times ionized molybdenum (Mo VI). Contributions from the Breit interaction up to the first order of perturbation have been examined. Our results are in good agreement with the available other reported theoretical and experimental results. A long lifetime about 4.9854 s of the first excited state, 4d $^2D_{5/2}$, has been predicted which can be a very useful criteria in the doping process of thin films. Correlations trends from various RCC terms to the transition amplitude calculations are discussed.

Abstract:
Four ternary semiconductors with the chalcopyrite structure (BeCN2, BeSiN2, MgCN2, and MgSiN2) were studied using the first principles methods. The structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties were calculated. All these materials were found to be the indirect band gap semiconductors, with the calculated band gaps in the range from 3.46 eV to 3.88 eV. Comparison of the degree of covalency/ionicity of the chemical bonds in these compounds was performed. Anisotropy of the optical properties of these tetragonal crystals was demonstrated by calculating the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function {\epsilon}. Anisotropy of the elastic properties of these materials was analyzed by plotting the three-dimensional dependences of the Young moduli and their two-dimensional cross-sections. It was also shown (at least, qualitatively) that there exists a correlation between the optical and elastic anisotropy: the most optically anisotropic MgSiN2 is also most elastically anisotropic material in the considered group. High hardness (bulk moduli up to 300 GPa) together with large band gaps may lead to new potential applications of these compounds.

Abstract:
Recent x-ray Compton scattering experiments in ice have provided useful information about the quantum nature of the interaction between H$_2$O monomers. The hydrogen bond is characterized by a certain amount of charge transfer which could be determined in a Compton experiment. We use ab-initio simulations to investigate the hydrogen bond in H$_2$O structures by calculating the Compton profile and related quantities in three different systems, namely the water dimer, a cluster containing 12 water molecules and the ice crystal. We show how to extract estimates of the charge transfer from the Compton profiles.

Abstract:
We describe recent progress in developing practical ab initio methods for which the computer effort is proportional to the number of atoms: linear scaling or O(N) methods. It is shown that the locality property of the density matrix gives a general framework for constructing such methods. We then describe our scheme, which operates within density functional theory. Efficient methods for reaching the electronic ground state are summarised, both for finding the density matrix, and in varying the localised orbitals.

Abstract:
An ab initio approach to the calculation of excitonic effects in the optical absorption spectra of semiconductors and insulators is formulated. It starts from a quasiparticle bandstructure calculation and is based on the relevant Bethe--Salpeter equation. An application to bulk silicon shows a substantial improvement with respect to previous calculations in the description of the experimental spectrum, for both peak positions and lineshape.

Abstract:
We use a recently developed self-consistent $GW$ approximation to present systematic \emph{ab initio} calculations of the conduction band spin splitting in III-V and II-V zincblende semiconductors. The spin orbit interaction is taken into account as a perturbation to the scalar relativistic hamiltonian. These are the first calculations of conduction band spin splittings based on a quasiparticle approach; and because the self-consistent $GW$ scheme accurately reproduces the relevant band parameters, it is expected to be a reliable predictor of spin splittings. The results are compared to the few available experimental data and a previous calculation based on a model one-particle potential. We also briefly address the widely used {\bf k}$\cdot${\bf p} parameterization in the context of these results.

Abstract:
Due to the development of efficient algorithms and the improvement of computer power it is now possible to map out potential energy surfaces (PES) of reactions at surfaces in great detail. This achievement has been accompanied by an increased effort in the dynamical simulation of processes on surfaces. The paradigm for simple reactions at surfaces -- the dissociation of hydrogen on metal surfaces -- can now be treated fully quantum dynamically in the molecular degrees of freedom from first principles, i.e., without invoking any adjustable parameters. This relatively new field of ab initio dynamics simulations of reactions at surfaces will be reviewed. Mainly the dissociation of hydrogen on clean and adsorbate covered metal surfaces and on semiconductor surfaces will be discussed. In addition, the ab initio molecular dynamics treatment of reactions of hydrogen atoms with hydrogen-passivated semiconductor surfaces and recent achievements in the ab initio description of laser-induced desorption and further developments will be addressed.

Abstract:
An {\em ab initio} (i.e., from first principles) theoretical framework capable of providing a unified description of the structure and low-energy reaction properties of light nuclei is desirable to further our understanding of the fundamental interactions among nucleons, and provide accurate predictions of crucial reaction rates for nuclear astrophysics, fusion-energy research, and other applications. In this contribution we review {\em ab initio} calculations for nucleon and deuterium scattering on light nuclei starting from chiral two- and three-body Hamiltonians, obtained within the framework of the {\em ab initio} no-core shell model with continuum. This is a unified approach to nuclear bound and scattering states, in which square-integrable energy eigenstates of the $A$-nucleon system are coupled to $(A-a)+a$ target-plus-projectile wave functions in the spirit of the resonating group method to obtain an efficient description of the many-body nuclear dynamics both at short and medium distances and at long ranges.