Abstract:
We consider scalar tensor theories in D-dimensional spacetime, D \ge 4. They consist of metric and a non minimally coupled scalar field, with its non minimal coupling characterised by a function. The probes couple minimally to the metric only. We obtain vacuum solutions - both cosmological and static spherically symmetric ones - and study their properties. We find that, as seen by the probes, there is no singularity in the cosmological solutions for a class of functions which obey certain constraints. It turns out that for the same class of functions, there are static spherically symmetric solutions which exhibit novel properties: {\em e.g.} near the ``horizon'', the gravitational force as seen by the probe becomes repulsive.

Abstract:
A static spherically symmetric metric in Einstein-scalar-tensor gravity theory with a scalar field potential $V[\phi]$ is non-singular for all real values of the coordinates. It does not have a black hole event horizon and there is no essential singularity at the origin of coordinates. The weak energy condition $\rho_\phi > 0$ fails to be satisfied for $r\lesssim 1.3r_S$ (where $r_S$ is the Schwarzschild radius) but the strong energy condition $\rho_\phi+3p_\phi > 0$ is satisfied. The classical Einstein-scalar-tensor solution is regular everywhere in spacetime without a black hole event horizon. However, the violation of the weak energy condition may signal the need for quantum physics anti-gravity as $r\to 0$. The non-singular static spherically symmetric solution is stable against the addition of ordinary matter.

Abstract:
We develop an algorithm which can be used to exclude the existence of classical breathers (periodic finite energy solutions) in scalar field theories, and apply it to several cases of interest. In particular, the technique is used to show that a pair of potentially periodic solutions of the 3+1 Sine-Gordon Lagrangian, found numerically in earlier work, are not breathers. These ``pseudo-breather states'' do have a signature in our method, which we suggest can be used to find similar quasi-bound state configurations in other theories. We also discuss the results of our algorithm when applied to the 1+1 Sine-Gordon model (which exhibits a well-known set of breathers), and $\phi ^4$ theory.

Abstract:
The exact static and spherically symmetric solutions of the vacuum field equations for a Higgs Scalar-Tensor theory (HSTT) are derived in Schwarzschild coordinates. It is shown that in general there exists no Schwarzschild horizon and that the fields are only singular (as naked singularity) at the center (i.e. for the case of a pont-particle). However, the Schwarzschild solution as in usual general relativity (GR) is obtained for the vanishing limit of Higgs field excitations.

Abstract:
Unlike general relativity, scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict scalar gravitational waves even from a spherically symmetric gravitational collapse. We solve numerically the generation and propagation of the scalar gravitational wave from a spherically symmetric and homogeneous dust collapse under the approximation that we can neglect the back reaction of the scalar wave on the space-time, and examine how the amplitude, characteristic frequency and wave form of the observed scalar gravitational wave depend on the initial radius and mass of the dust and parameters contained in the theory. In the Brans-Dicke theory, through the observation of the scalar gravitational wave, it is possible to determine the initial radius and mass and a parameter contained in the theory. In the scalar-tensor theories, it would be possible to get the information of the first derivative of the coupling function contained in the theory because the wave form of the scalar gravitational wave greatly depends on it.

Abstract:
We study singular hypersurfaces in tensor multi-scalar theories of gravity. We derive in a distributional and then in an intrinsic way, the general equations of junction valid for all types of hypersurfaces, in particular for lightlike shells and write the general equations of evolution for these objects. We apply this formalism to various examples in static spherically symmetric spacetimes, and to the study of planar domain walls and plane impulsive waves.

Abstract:
Recently, a relativistic gravitation theory has been proposed [J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D {\bf 70}, 083509 (2004)] that gives the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (or MOND) in the weak acceleration regime. The theory is based on three dynamic gravitational fields and succeeds in explaining a large part of extragalactic and gravitational lensing phenomenology without invoking dark matter. In this work we consider the strong gravity regime of TeVeS. We study spherically symmetric, static and vacuum spacetimes relevant for a non-rotating black hole or the exterior of a star. Two branches of solutions are identified: in the first the vector field is aligned with the time direction while in the second the vector field has a non-vanishing radial component. We show that in the first branch of solutions the \beta and \gamma PPN coefficients in TeVeS are identical to these of general relativity (GR) while in the second the \beta PPN coefficient differs from unity violating observational determinations of it (for the choice of the free function $F$ of the theory made in Bekenstein's paper). For the first branch of solutions, we derive analytic expressions for the physical metric and discuss their implications. Applying these solutions to the case of black holes, it is shown that they violate causality (since they allow for superluminal propagation of metric, vector and scalar waves) in the vicinity of the event horizon and/or that they are characterized by negative energy density carried by the fields.

Abstract:
Within the scalar-tensor theory of gravity with Higgs mechanism without Higgs particles, we prove that the excited Higgs potential (the scalar field) vanishs inside and outside of the stellar matter for static spherically symmetric configurations. The field equation for the metric (the tensorial gravitational field) turns out to be essentially the Einsteinian one.

Abstract:
The initial value problem of scalar-tensor theories of gravity (STT) is analyzed in the physical (Jordan) frame using a 3+1 decomposition of spacetime. A first order strongly hyperbolic system is obtained for which the well posedness of the Cauchy problem can be established. We provide two simple applications of the 3+1 system of equations: one for static and spherically symmetric spacetimes which allows the construction of unstable initial data (compact objects) for which a further black hole formation and scalar gravitational wave emission can be analyzed, and another application is for homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes that permits to study the dynamics of the Universe in the framework of STT.

Abstract:
In second-order scalar-tensor theories we study how the Vainshtein mechanism works in a spherically symmetric background with a matter source. In the presence of the field coupling $F(\phi)=e^{-2Q\phi}$ with the Ricci scalar $R$ we generally derive the Vainshtein radius within which the General Relativistic behavior is recovered even for the coupling $Q$ of the order of unity. Our analysis covers the models such as the extended Galileon and Brans-Dicke theories with a dilatonic field self-interaction. We show that, if these models are responsible for the cosmic acceleration today, the corrections to gravitational potentials are generally small enough to be compatible with local gravity constraints.