Abstract:
We comment on the recent Mainz "measurement" (PRL78 (1997) 606) of the $E2/M1$ ratio in the $N-\Delta$ electromagnetic transition. Analyzing the Mainz data using an effective Lagrangian approach, we find this ratio to be (-3.19$\pm$0.24)%.

Abstract:
Tagged linearly polarized photons have been used at the Mainz Microtron MAMI for simultaneous measurements of the p(\vec{\gamma},p)\pi^0 and p(\vec{\gamma},\pi^+)n reaction channels to study the \gamma N \to \Delta(1232) transition. The energy dependence of the magnetic dipole M_{1+}^{3/2} and electric quadrupole E_{1+}^{3/2} amplitudes have been extracted from these data in the photon energy range from 270 to 420 MeV. The E2/M1 ratio for the \gamma N \to \Delta(1232) transition has been determined to be - (2.5+-0.1_{stat}+-0.2_{sys}) % at the resonance position delta_{33}=90^0.

Abstract:
A recent analysis of pion photo-production multipoles using p(g,pi0) data from Mainz is repeated, successively adding constraints from other observables and varying the number of fitted partial waves. The original analysis is shown to have been underconstrained and suffered from ambiguities. The inclusion of additional observables in our analysis results in a very different, but stable, ratio of E2/M1 multipoles at the delta that is consistent with the Mainz data set.

Abstract:
Recent determinations of the E2/M1 ratio are reviewed. Many aspects of these studies have been questioned. Here we focus on the selection of a database, methods used in the extraction of this ratio, and interpretation(s) of the results.

Abstract:
We show how the stability of the E2/M1 ratio, evaluated at the T-matrix pole, can be understood given a much wider variation at the K-matrix pole.

Abstract:
We compute the leading contribution to the E2/M1 mixing ratio of the decay $\Delta\rightarrow N\gamma$ in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. We find the mixing ratio to be $4\% \ltap |\delta_{\rm E2/M1}| \ltap 11\%$, much larger than estimates based on the quark model and other hadronic models. We also compute the mixing ratio for the radiative decay of the hyperon resonances. The decays $\Sigma^{*+}\rightarrow\Sigma^+\gamma$ and $\Xi^{*-}\rightarrow\Xi^-\gamma$ provide a particularly sensitive probe of deviations from heavy baryon spin-flavour SU(6).

Abstract:
We calculate the electric quadrupole to magnetic dipole transition ratio $E2/M1$ for the reaction $\gamma N \ra \Delta(1232)$ in the chiral quark soliton model. The calculated $E2/M1$ ratio is in a good agreement with the very new experimental data. We obtain non-zero negative value for the electric quadrupole $N-\Delta$ transition moment, which suggests an oblate deformed charge structure of the nucleon or/and the delta isobar. Other observables related to this quantity, namely the $N-\Delta$ mass splitting, the isovector charge radius, and isovector magnetic moment, are properly reproduced as well.

Abstract:
We reply to the Comment of A.M. Sandorfi et al. [nucl-th/9707028] on the E2/M1 ratio from the Mainz photoproduction data, nucl-th/9707028 v2. We support our published result for the E2/M1 ratio of REM = -(2.5 +- 0.2 +- 0.2)%.

Abstract:
A partial wave analysis of pion photoproduction has been obtained in the framework of fixed-t dispersion relations valid from threshold up to 500 MeV. In the resonance region we have precisely determined the electromagnetic properties of the \Delta(1232) resonance, in particular the E2/M1 ratio R_{EM}=(-2.5 +- 0.1) %. For pion electroproduction recent experimental data from Mainz, Bates and JLab for Q^2 up to 4.0 (GeV/c)^2 have been analyzed with two different models, an isobar model (MAID) and a dynamical model. The E2/M1 ratios extracted with these two models show, starting from a small and negative value at the real photon point, a clear tendency to cross zero, and become positive with increasing Q^2. This is a possible indication of a very slow approach toward the pQCD region. The C2/M1 ratio near the photon point is found as R_{SM}(0)=(-6.5 +- 0.5) %. At high Q^2 the absolute value of the ratio is strongly increasing, a further indication that pQCD is not yet reached.

Abstract:
The resonant electric quadrupole amplitude in the transition $\gamma N\leftrightarrow\Delta(1232)$ is of great interest for the understanding of baryon structure. Various dynamical models have been developed to extract it from the corresponding photoproduction multipole of pions on nucleons. It is shown that once such a model is specified, a whole class of unitarily equivalent models can be constructed, all of them providing exactly the same fit to the experimental data. However, they may predict quite different resonant amplitudes. Therefore, the extraction of the E2/M1($\gamma N\leftrightarrow\Delta$) ratio (bare or dressed) which is based on a dynamical model using a largely phenomenological $\pi N$ interaction is not unique.