Abstract:
In this article we compute the density of Dirac particles created by a cosmological anisotropic Bianchi I universe in the presence of a constant electric field. We show that the particle distribution becomes thermal when one neglects the electric interaction.

Abstract:
Using squeezed vacuum state formalism of quantum optics, an approximate solution to the semiclassical Einstein equation is obtained in Bianchi type-I universe. The phenomena of nonclassical particle creation is also examined in the anisotropic background cosmology.

Abstract:
Within the scope of an anisotropic Bianchi type-VI cosmological model we have studied the evolution of the universe filled with perfect fluid and dark energy. To get the deterministic model of Universe, we assume that the shear scalar $(\sigma)$ in the model is proportional to expansion scalar $(\vartheta)$. This assumption allows only isotropic distribution of fluid. Exact solution to the corresponding equations are obtained. The EoS parameter for dark energy as well as deceleration parameter is found to be the time varying functions. Using the observational data qualitative picture of the evolution of the universe corresponding to different of its stages is given. The stability of the solutions obtained is also studied.

Abstract:
Bianchi type I magnetized cosmological models in the presence of a bulk viscous fluid are investigated. The source of the magnetic field is due to an electric current produced along x-axis. The distribution consists of an electrically neutral viscous fluid with an infinite electrical conductivity. The coefficient of bulk viscosity is assumed to be a power function of mass density. The cosmological constant $\Lambda$ is found to be positive and is a decreasing function of time which is supported by results from recent supernovae observations. The behaviour of the models in presence and absence of magnetic field are also discussed.

Abstract:
We study the classical and quantum evolution of a universe in which the matter source is a massive Dirac spinor field and the universe is described by a Bianchi type I metric. We focus attention on those classical solutions that admit a degenerate metric in which the scale factors have smooth behavior in transition from a Euclidean to a Lorentzian domain and show that this transition happens when the cosmological constant, $\Lambda$, is negative. The resulting quantum cosmology and the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt equation are also studied and closed form expressions for the wave functions of the universe is presented. We have shown that there is a close relationship between the quantum states and signature changing classical solutions, suggesting a mechanism for creation of a Lorentzian universe from a Euclidean region by a continuous change of signature. The quantum solutions also represent a quantization rule for the mass of the spinor field.

Abstract:
The present study deals with spatially homogeneous and anisotropic locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type I cosmological model with dominance of dark energy. To get the deterministic model of Universe, we assume that the shear scalar $(\sigma)$ in the model is proportional to expansion scalar $(\theta)$. This condition leads to $A=B^{n}$, where $A$,\;$B$ are metric potential and $n$ is positive constant. It has been found that the anisotropic distribution of dark energy leads to the present accelerated expansion of Universe. The physical behavior of the Universe has been discussed in detail.

Abstract:
This paper is devoted to study the Bianchi type III model in the presence of anisotropic fluid in f(R) gravity. Exponential and power-law volumetric expansions are used to obtain exact solutions of the field equations. We discuss the physical behavior of the solutions and anisotropy behavior of the fluid, the expansion parameter and the model in future evolution of the universe.

Abstract:
We study Bianchi type $I$ cosmological model in the presence of magnetized anisotropic dark energy. The energy-momentum tensor consists of anisotropic fluid with anisotropic EoS $p=\omega{\rho}$ and a uniform magnetic field of energy density $\rho_B$. We obtain exact solutions to the field equations using the condition that expansion is proportional to the shear scalar. The physical behavior of the model is discussed with and without magnetic field. We conclude that universe model as well as anisotropic fluid do not approach isotropy through the evolution of the universe.

Abstract:
The paper deals with Bianchi type V Universe, which has dynamical energy density. We consider Bianchi type V space-time, introducing three different skewness parameters along spatial directions to quantify the deviation of pressure from isotropy. To study the anisotropic nature of the dynamical dark energy, we assume that the skewness parameters are time dependent. It is found that the Universe achieves flatness in quintessence model. The physical behavior of the Universe has been discussed in detail.

Abstract:
The general form of the anisotropy parameter of the expansion for Bianchi type-III metric is obtained in the presence of a single diagonal imperfect fluid with a dynamically anisotropic equation of state parameter and a dynamical energy density in general relativity. A special law is assumed for the anisotropy of the fluid which reduces the anisotropy parameter of the expansion to a simple form. The exact solutions of the Einstein field equations, under the assumption on the anisotropy of the fluid, are obtained for exponential and power-law volumetric expansions. The isotropy of the fluid, space and expansion are examined. It is observed that the universe can approach to isotropy monotonically even in the presence of an anisotropic fluid. The anisotropy of the fluid also isotropizes at later times for accelerating models and evolves into the well-known cosmological constant in the model for exponential volumetric expansion.