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 Physics , 2015, Abstract: In order to investigate the electronic state of Ce-free and Ce-underdoped high-Tc cuprates with the so-called T' structure, we have performed muon-spin-relaxation (muSR) and specific-heat measurements of Ce-free T'-La_1.8_Eu_0.2_CuO_4+d_ (T'-LECO) polycrystals and Ce-underdoped T'-Pr_1.3-x_La_0.7_Ce_x_CuO_4+d_ (T'-PLCCO) single crystals with x=0.10. The muSR spectra of the reduced superconducting samples of both T'-LECO with Tc=15K and T'-PLCCO with x=0.10 and Tc=27K have revealed that a short-range magnetic order coexists with the superconductivity in the ground state. The formation of a short-range magnetic order due to a tiny amount of excess oxygen in the reduced superconducting samples strongly suggest that the Ce-free and Ce-underdoped T'-cuprates are regarded as strongly correlated electron systems.
 Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1038/35082019 Abstract: In conventional superconductors, magnetic interactions and magnetic impurity atoms are destructive to superconductivity. By contrast, in some unconventional systems, e.g. superfluid 3He and superconducting UGe2, superconductivity or superfluidity is actually mediated by magnetic interactions. A magnetic mechanism has also been proposed for high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) in which an electron magnetically polarizes its environment resulting in an attractive pairing-interaction for oppositely polarized spins. Since a magnetic impurity atom would apparently not disrupt such a pairing-interaction, it has also been proposed that the weaker influences on HTSC of magnetic Ni impurity atoms compared to those of non-magnetic Zn are evidence for a magnetic mechanism. Here we use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to determine directly the influence of individual Ni atoms on the electronic structure of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d. Two local d-wave impurity-states are observed at each Ni. Analysis of their energies surprisingly reveals that the primary quasiparticle scattering effects of Ni atoms are due to non-magnetic interactions. Nonetheless, we also demonstrate that a magnetic moment coexists with unimpaired superconductivity at each Ni site. We discuss the implications of these phenomena, and those at Zn, for the pairing-mechanism.
 Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1016/j.ssc.2014.11.014 Abstract: We consider the coexistence of superconductivity(SC) and spin-density wave(SDW). The SC is presumed to be of $d_{x^2-y^2}+id_{xy} (d_1 + i d_2)$ type whereas the SDW order parameter is of $BCS$/$d_{x y}$ symmetry. The Hamiltonian having such a structure is shown to have topological coexistence phases in addition to the conventional one. It is shown that the amplitudes of both the order parameters determine the nature of topological phases. A phase diagram characterizing different topological phases with their Chern numbers are obtained. The experimental realization of such topological phases with reference to high temperature superconductors in the extreme underdoped regime are discussed.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.1018 Abstract: New tunneling data are reported in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-d using superconductor-insulator-superconductor break junctions. Energy gaps, Delta, of 51+2, 54+2 and 57+3 meV are observed for three crystals with Tc=77, 74, and 70 K respectively. These energy gaps are nearly three times larger than for overdoped crystals with similar Tc. Detailed examination of tunneling spectra over a wide doping range from underdoped to overdoped, including the Josephson IcRn product, indicate that these energy gaps are predominantly of superconducting origin.
 Iranian Journal of Physics Research , 2006, Abstract: Two decades ago the epoch making discovery of high Tc cuprate superconductivity by Bednorz and Müller shocked the world’s superconductivity community. However, already in 1979 and 1980, the first heavy fermion superconductor CeCu2Si2 and organic superconductor (TMTSF)2PF6 have been discovered respectively. Also we know now that all these superconductors are unconventional and nodal. Further the quasiparticles in the normal state in these systems are Fermi liquids and the superconducting states are described in terms of generalized BCS wave function. Also the pseudogap phase in underdoped high Tc cuprates is described in terms of d-wave density wave. This implies necessarily that the superconductivity in underdoped cuprates is gossamer (i.e. d-wave superconductivity coexists with d-wave density wave). We shall present some quantitative tests of these new concepts, notions and ideas.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.180507 Abstract: Evidence of two-dimensional (2D) quantum critical fluctuations is observed in the superfluid density ns(T) \propto $\lambda$ -2(T) of deeply underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) films, indicating that quantum fluctuations play a dominant role in underdoped cuprates in general. 2D fluctuations are expressed by the linear scaling, Tc \propto ns(0). 2D scaling in Bi-2212 contrasts with 3D scaling seen in the much less anisotropic YBa2Cu3O7-x. Quantum critical fluctuations could also account for the absence of thermal critical behavior in \lambda^{-2}(T) of strongly underdoped Bi-2212 samples, Tc < 48 K.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.137002 Abstract: Vortex thermal fluctuations in heavily underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d (Tc=69.4 K) are studied using Josephson plasma resonance (JPR). From the data in zero magnetic field, we obtain the penetration depth along the c-axis, lambda_{L,c}(0) = 229 micrometers and the anisotropy ratio gamma(0) = 600. The low plasma frequency allows us to study phase correlations over the whole vortex solid (Bragg-glass) state. The JPR results yield a wandering length r_{w} of vortex pancakes. The temperature dependence of r_{w} as well as its increase with applied dc magnetic field can only be explained by the renormalization of the tilt modulus by thermal fluctuations, and suggest the latter is responsible for the dissociation of the vortices at the first order transition.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1126/science.1174338 Abstract: Understanding the mechanism by which d-wave superconductivity in the cuprates emerges and is optimized by doping the Mott insulator is one of the major outstanding problems in condensed matter physics. Our high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy measurements of the high transition temperature (Tc) superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d show that samples with different Tcs in the low doping regime follow a remarkably universal d-wave low energy excitation spectrum, indicating a doping independent nodal gap. We demonstrate that Tc instead correlates with the fraction of the Fermi surface over which the samples exhibit the universal spectrum. Optimal Tc is achieved when all parts of the Fermi surface follow this universal behavior. Increasing temperature above Tc turns the universal spectrum into an arc of gapless excitations, while overdoping breaks down the universal nodal behavior.
 Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1016/j.physc.2007.04.053 Abstract: By measuring the Josephson Plasma Resonance, we have probed the influence of an in-plane magnetic field on the pancake vortex correlations along the c-axis in heavily underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+d (Tc = 72.4 +/- 0.6 K) single crystals both in the vortex liquid and in the vortex solid phase. Whereas the in-plane field enhances the interlayer phase coherence in the liquid state close to the melting line, it slightly depresses it in the solid state. This is interpreted as the result of an attractive force between pancake vortices and Josephson vortices, apparently also present in the vortex liquid state. The results unveil a boundary between a correlated vortex liquid in which pancakes adapt to Josephson vortices, and the usual homogeneous liquid.
 Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.257002 Abstract: We report Cu- and F-NMR studies on a four-layered high-temperature superconductor Ba2Ca3Cu4O8F2(0234F(2.0)) with apical fluorine (F-1), an undoped 55 K-superconductor with a nominal Cu2+ valence on average. We reveal that this compound exhibits the antiferromagnetism (AFM) with a Neel temperature TN=100 K despite being a Tc= 55 K-superconductor. Through a comparison with a related tri-layered cuprate Ba2Ca2Cu3O6F2 (0223F(2.0)), it is demonstrated that electrons are transferred from the inner plane (IP) to the outer plane (OP) in 0234F(2.0) and 0223F(2.0), confirming the self-doped high-temperature superconductivity (HTSC) having electron and hole doping in a single compound. Remarlably, uniform mixing of AFM and HTSC takes place in both the electron-doped OPs and the hole-doped IPs in 0234F(2.0).
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