Abstract:
It is widely thought that core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), the explosions of massive stars following the collapse of the stars' iron cores, is obtained due to energy deposition by neutrinos. So far, this scenario was not demonstrated from first principles. Kushnir and Katz (2014) have recently shown, by using one-dimensional simulations, that if the neutrinos failed to explode the star, a thermonuclear explosion of the outer shells is possible for some (tuned) initial profiles. However, the energy released was small and negligible amounts of ejected $^{56}$Ni were obtained, implying that these one-dimensional collapse induced thermonuclear explosions (CITE) are unlikely to represent typical CCSNe. Here I provide evidence supporting a scenario in which the majority of CCSNe are the result of CITE. I use two-dimensional simulations to show that collapse of stars that include slowly (few percent of breakup) rotating $\sim0.1-10\,M_{\odot}$ shells of mixed helium-oxygen, leads to an ignition of a thermonuclear detonation wave that unbinds the stars' outer layers. Simulations of massive stars with different properties show that CITE is a robust process, and results in explosions with kinetic energies in the range of $10^{49}-10^{52}\,\textrm{erg}$, and $^{56}$Ni yields of up to $\sim\,M_{\odot}$, which are correlated, in agreement with observations for the majority of CCSNe. Stronger explosions are predicted from higher mass progenitors that leave more massive remnants, in contrast to the neutrino mechanism. Neutron stars are produced in weak ($\lt10^{51}\,\textrm{erg}$) explosions, while strong ($\gt10^{51}\,\textrm{erg}$) explosions leave black hole remnants.

Abstract:
We investigate the gravitational collapse of rapidly rotating relativistic supermassive stars by means of a 3+1 hydrodynamical simulations in conformally flat spacetime of general relativity. We study the evolution of differentially rotating supermassive stars of $q \equiv J/M^{2} \sim 1$ ($J$ is the angular momentum and $M$ is the gravitational mass of the star) from the onset of radial instability at $R/M \sim 65$ ($R$ is the circumferential radius of the star) to the point where the conformally flat approximation breaks down. We find that the collapse of the star of $q \gtrsim 1$, a radially unstable differentially rotating star form a black hole of $q \lesssim 1$. The main reason to prevent formation of a black hole of $q \gtrsim 1$ is that quite a large amount of angular momentum stays at the surface. We also find that most of the mass density collapses coherently to form a supermassive black hole with no appreciable disk nor bar. In the absence of nonaxisymmetric deformation, the collapse of differentially rotating supermassive stars from the onset of radial instability are the promising sources of burst and quasinormal ringing waves in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

Abstract:
We perform simulations of general relativistic rotating stellar core collapse and compute the gravitational waves (GWs) emitted in the core bounce phase of three representative models via multiple techniques. The simplest technique, the quadrupole formula (QF), estimates the GW content in the spacetime from the mass quadrupole tensor. It is strictly valid only in the weak-field and slow-motion approximation. For the first time, we apply GW extraction methods in core collapse that are fully curvature-based and valid for strongly radiating and highly relativistic sources. We employ three extraction methods computing (i) the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar Psi_4, (ii) Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief (RWZM) master functions, and (iii) Cauchy-Characteristic Extraction (CCE) allowing for the extraction of GWs at future null infinity, where the spacetime is asymptotically flat and the GW content is unambiguously defined. The latter technique is the only one not suffering from residual gauge and finite-radius effects. All curvature-based methods suffer from strong non-linear drifts. We employ the fixed-frequency integration technique as a high-pass waveform filter. Using the CCE results as a benchmark, we find that finite-radius NP extraction yields results that agree nearly perfectly in phase, but differ in amplitude by ~1-7% at core bounce, depending on the model. RWZM waveforms, while in general agreeing in phase, contain spurious high-frequency noise of comparable amplitudes to those of the relatively weak GWs emitted in core collapse. We also find remarkably good agreement of the waveforms obtained from the QF with those obtained from CCE. They agree very well in phase but systematically underpredict peak amplitudes by ~5-11% which is comparable to the NP results and is within the uncertainties associated with core collapse physics. (abridged)

Abstract:
We perform 3D numerical simulations in full general relativity to study the stability of rapidly rotating, supramassive neutron stars at the mass-shedding limit to dynamical collapse. We adopt an adiabatic equation of state with $\Gamma = 2$ and focus on uniformly rotating stars. We find that the onset of dynamical instability along mass-shedding sequences nearly coincides with the onset of secular instability. Unstable stars collapse to rotating black holes within about one rotation period. We also study the collapse of stable stars which have been destabilized by pressure depletion (e.g. via a phase transition) or mass accretion. In no case do we find evidence for the formation of massive disks or any ejecta around the newly formed Kerr black holes, even though the progenitors are rapidly rotating.

Abstract:
Presented in this paper is a technique that we propose for extracting the physical parameters of a rotating stellar core collapse from the observation of the associated gravitational wave signal from the collapse and core bounce. Data from interferometric gravitational wave detectors can be used to provide information on the mass of the progenitor model, precollapse rotation and the nuclear equation of state. We use waveform libraries provided by the latest numerical simulations of rotating stellar core collapse models in general relativity, and from them create an orthogonal set of eigenvectors using principal component analysis. Bayesian inference techniques are then used to reconstruct the associated gravitational wave signal that is assumed to be detected by an interferometric detector. Posterior probability distribution functions are derived for the amplitudes of the principal component analysis eigenvectors, and the pulse arrival time. We show how the reconstructed signal and the principal component analysis eigenvector amplitude estimates may provide information on the physical parameters associated with the core collapse event.

Abstract:
Rotating and magnetized protoneutron stars (PNSs) may drive relativistic magneto-centrifugally accelerated winds as they cool immediately after core collapse. The wind fluid near the star is composed of neutrons and protons, and the neutrons become relativistic while collisionally coupled with the ions. Here, we argue that the neutrons in the flow eventually undergo inelastic collisions around the termination shock inside the stellar material, producing ~0.1-1 GeV neutrinos, without relying on cosmic-ray acceleration mechanisms. Even higher-energy neutrinos may be produced via particle acceleration mechanisms. We show that PINGU and Hyper-Kamiokande can detect such neutrinos from nearby core-collapse supernovae, by reducing the atmospheric neutrino background via coincident detection of MeV neutrinos or gravitational waves and optical observations. Detection of these GeV and/or higher-energy neutrinos would provide important clues to the physics of magnetic acceleration, nucleosynthesis, the relation between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts, and the properties of newly born neutron stars.

Abstract:
We study the final state of the gravitational collapse of uniformly rotating supramassive neutron stars by axisymmetric simulations in full general relativity. The rotating stars provided as the initial condition are marginally stable against quasiradial gravitational collapse and its equatorial radius rotates with the Kepler velocity (i.e., the star is at the mass-shedding limit). To model the neutron stars, we adopt the polytropic equations of state for a wide range of the polytropic index as $n=2/3$, 4/5, 1, 3/2 and 2. We follow the formation and evolution of the black holes, and show that irrespective of the value of $n (2/3\leq n \leq 2)$, the final state is a Kerr black hole and the disk mass is very small ($< 10^{-3}$ of the initial stellar mass).

Abstract:
We present results from a new set of 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of rotating iron core collapse. We assume octant symmetry and focus on axisymmetric collapse, bounce, the early postbounce evolution, and the associated gravitational wave (GW) and neutrino signals. We employ a finite-temperature nuclear equation of state, parameterized electron capture in the collapse phase, and a multi-species neutrino leakage scheme after bounce. The latter captures the important effects of deleptonization, neutrino cooling and heating and enables approximate predictions for the neutrino luminosities in the early evolution after core bounce. We consider 12-solar-mass and 40-solar-mass presupernova models and systematically study the effects of (i) rotation, (ii) progenitor structure, and (iii) postbounce neutrino leakage on dynamics, GW, and, neutrino signals. We demonstrate, that the GW signal of rapidly rotating core collapse is practically independent of progenitor mass and precollapse structure. Moreover, we show that the effects of neutrino leakage on the GW signal are strong only in nonrotating or slowly rotating models in which GW emission is not dominated by inner core dynamics. In rapidly rotating cores, core bounce of the centrifugally-deformed inner core excites the fundamental quadrupole pulsation mode of the nascent protoneutron star. The ensuing global oscillations (f~700-800 Hz) lead to pronounced oscillations in the GW signal and correlated strong variations in the rising luminosities of antineutrino and heavy-lepton neutrinos. We find these features in cores that collapse to protoneutron stars with spin periods <~ 2.5 ms and rotational energies sufficient to drive hyper-energetic core-collapse supernova explosions. Hence, joint GW + neutrino observations of a core collapse event could deliver strong evidence for or against rapid core rotation. [abridged]

Abstract:
We derive estimates for the characteristics of gravitational radiation from stellar collapse, using recent models of the core-collapse of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs (accretion induced collapse), core-collapse supernovae and collapsars, and the collapse of very massive stars (~> 300 Msun). We study gravitational-wave emission mechanisms using several estimation techniques, including two-dimensional numerical computation of quadrupole wave emission, estimates of bar-mode strength, estimates of r-mode emission, and estimates of waves from black hole ringing. We also review the rate at which the relevant collapses are believed to occur, which has a major impact on their relevance as astrophysical sources. Although the latest supernova progenitor simulations produce cores rotating much slower than those used in the past, we find that bar-mode and r-mode instabilities from core-collapse supernovae remain among the leading candidate sources for LIGO-II. Accretion induced collapse (AIC) of a white dwarf could produce gravitational-wave signals similar to those from core-collapse. In the models that we examine, such collapses are not unstable to bar modes; we note that models recently examined by Liu and Lindblom, which have slightly more angular momentum, are certainly unstable to bar formation. Because AIC events are probably 1,000 times less common than core-collapse supernovae, the typical AIC event will be much further away, and thus the observed waves will be much weaker. In the most optimistic circumstances, we find it may be possible to detect gravitational waves from the collapse of 300 Msun Population III stars.

Abstract:
Core collapse supernovae are a promising source of detectable gravitational waves. Most of the existing (multidimensional) numerical simulations of core collapse in general relativity have been done using approximations of the Einstein field equations. As recently shown by Dimmelmeier et al (2002a,b), one of the most interesting such approximation is the so-called conformal flatness condition (CFC) of Isenberg, Wilson and Mathews. Building on this previous work we present here new results from numerical simulations of relativistic rotational core collapse in axisymmetry, aiming at improving the dynamics and the gravitational waveforms. The computer code used for these simulations evolves the coupled system of metric and fluid equations using the 3+1 formalism, specialized to a new framework for the gravitational field equations which we call CFC+. In this approach we add new degrees of freedom to the original CFC equations, which extend them by terms of second post-Newtonian order. The corrections for CFC+ are computed solving a system of elliptic linear equations. The new formalism is assessed with time evolutions of both rotating neutron stars in equilibrium and gravitational core collapse of rotating polytropes. Gravitational wave signals for a comprehensive sample of collapse models are extracted using either the quadrupole formula or directly from the metric. We discuss our results on the dynamics and the gravitational wave emission through a detailed comparison between CFC and CFC+ simulations. The main conclusion is that, for the neutron star spacetimes analyzed in the present work, no significant differences are found among CFC, CFC+, and full general relativity, which highlights the suitability of the former.