Abstract:
It is proved that (a) the solutions of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equation, which describe the equlibrium states of a cylindrical plasma with purely poloidal flow and arbitrary cross sectional shape [G. N. Throumoulopoulos and G. Pantis, Plasma Phys. and Contr. Fusion 38, 1817 (1996)] are also valid for incompressible equlibrium flows with the axial velocity component being a free surface quantity and (b) for the case of isothermal incompressible equilibria the magnetic surfaces have necessarily circular cross section.

Abstract:
A sufficient condition for the linear stability of three dimensional equilibria with incompressible flows parallel to the magnetic field is derived. The condition involves physically interpretable terms related to the magnetic shear and the flow shear.

Abstract:
We identify and discuss a family of azimuthally symmetric, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with poloidal and toroidal flows in terms of solutions of the Generalized Grad Shafranov (GGS) equation. These solutions are derived by exploiting the incompressibility assumption, in order to rewrite the GGS equation in terms of a different dependent variable, and the continuous Lie symmetry properties of the resulting equation and in particular a special type of "weak" symmetries.

Abstract:
We study the incompressible limit of the compressible non-isentropic ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations with general initial data in the whole space $\mathbb{R}^d$ ($d=2,3$). We first establish the existence of classic solutions on a time interval independent of the Mach number. Then, by deriving uniform a priori estimates, we obtain the convergence of the solution to that of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations as the Mach number tends to zero.

Abstract:
It is shown that the magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium states of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with finite resistivity and flows parallel to the magnetic field are governed by a second-order partial differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function $\psi$ coupled with a Bernoulli type equation for the plasma density (which are identical in form to the corresponding ideal MHD equilibrium equations) along with the relation $\Delta^\star \psi=V_c \sigma$. (Here, $\Delta^\star$ is the Grad-Schl\"{u}ter-Shafranov operator, $\sigma$ is the conductivity and $V_c$ is the constant toroidal-loop voltage divided by $2 \pi $). In particular, for incompressible flows the above mentioned partial differential equation becomes elliptic and decouples from the Bernoulli equation [H. Tasso and G. N. Throumoulopoulos, Phys. Plasmas {\bf 5}, 2378 (1998)]. For a conductivity of the form $\sigma=\sigma(R, \psi)$ ($R$ is the distance from the axis of symmetry) several classes of analytic equilibria with incompressible flows can be constructed having qualitatively plausible $\sigma$ profiles, i.e. profiles with $\sigma$ taking a maximum value close to the magnetic axis and a minimum value on the plasma surface. For $\sigma=\sigma(\psi)$ consideration of the relation $\Delta^\star\psi = V_c \sigma(\psi)$ in the vicinity of the magnetic axis leads therein to a proof of the non-existence of either compressible or incompressible equilibria. This result can be extended to the more general case of non-parallel flows lying within the magnetic surfaces.

Abstract:
It is found that the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of an axisymmetric gravitating magnetically confined plasma with incompressible flows is governed by a second-order elliptic differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function containing five flux functions coupled with a Poisson equation for the gravitation potential, and an algebraic relation for the pressure. This set of equations is amenable to analytic solutions. As an application, the magnetic-dipole static axisymmetric equilibria with vanishing poloidal plasma currents derived recently by Krasheninnikov, Catto, and Hazeltine [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 82}, 2689 (1999)] are extended to plasmas with finite poloidal currents, subject to gravitating forces from a massive body (a star or black hole) and inertial forces due to incompressible sheared flows. Explicit solutions are obtained in two regimes: (a) in the low-energy regime $\beta_0\approx \gamma_0\approx \delta_0 \approx\epsilon_0\ll 1$, where $\beta_0$, $\gamma_0$, $\delta_0$, and $\epsilon_0$ are related to the thermal, poloidal-current, flow and gravitating energies normalized to the poloidal-magnetic-field energy, respectively, and (b) in the high-energy regime $\beta_0\approx \gamma_0\approx \delta_0 \approx\epsilon_0\gg 1$. It turns out that in the high-energy regime all four forces, pressure-gradient, toroidal-magnetic-field, inertial, and gravitating contribute equally to the formation of magnetic surfaces very extended and localized about the symmetry plane such that the resulting equilibria resemble the accretion disks in astrophysics.

Abstract:
The present study is a continuation of a previous one on "hyperelliptic" axisymmetric equilibria started in [Tasso and Throumoulopoulos, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2378 (1998)]. Specifically, some equilibria with incompressible flow nonaligned with the magnetic field and restricted by appropriate side conditions like "isothermal" magnetic surfaces, "isodynamicity" or P + B^2/2 constant on magnetic surfaces are found to be reducible to elliptic integrals. The third class recovers recent equilibria found in [Schief, Phys. Plasmas 10, 2677 (2003)]. In contrast to field aligned flows, all solutions found here have nonzero toroidal magnetic field on and elliptic surfaces near the magnetic axis.

Abstract:
A novel model of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the presence of a strong external magnetic field is proposed for explanation of recent numerical results. According to the proposed model, in the presence of the strong external magnetic field, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence becomes nonlocal in the sense that low frequency modes cause decorrelation of interacting high frequency modes from the inertial interval. It is shown that the obtained nonlocal spectrum of the inertial range of incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence represents an anisotropic analogue of Kraichnan's nonlocal spectrum of hydrodynamic turbulence. Based on the analysis performed in the framework of the weak coupling approximation, which represents one of the equivalent formulations of the direct interaction approximation, it is shown that incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence could be both local and nonlocal and therefore anisotropic analogues of both the Kolmogorov and Kraichnan spectra are realizable in incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

Abstract:
A necessary condition for existence of general dissipative magnetohydrodynamic equilibria is derived. The ingredients of the derivation are Ohm's law and the existence of magnetic surfaces, only in the sense of KAM theorem. All other equations describing the system matter exclusively for the evaluation of the condition in a concrete case.

Abstract:
The formation of current sheets in ideal incompressible magnetohydrodynamic flows in two dimensions is studied numerically using the technique of adaptive mesh refinement. The growth of current density is in agreement with simple scaling assumptions. As expected, adaptive mesh refinement shows to be very efficient for studying singular structures compared to non-adaptive treatments.