Abstract:
We have discovered that the gauge invariant observables of matrix models invariant under U($N$) form a Lie algebra, in the planar large-N limit. These models include Quantum Chromodynamics and the M(atrix)-Theory of strings. We study here the gauge invariant states corresponding to open strings (`mesons'). We find that the algebra is an extension of a remarkable new Lie algebra ${\cal V}_{\Lambda}$ by a product of more well-known algebras such as $gl_{\infty}$ and the Cuntz algebra. ${\cal V}_{\Lambda}$ appears to be a generalization of the Lie algebra of vector fields on the circle to non-commutative geometry. We also use a representation of our Lie algebra to establish an isomorphism between certain matrix models (those that preserve `gluon number') and open quantum spin chains. Using known results on quantum spin chains, we are able to identify some exactly solvable matrix models. Finally, the Hamiltonian of a dimensionally reduced QCD model is expressed explicitly as an element of our Lie algebra.

Abstract:
Two new quantum anti-de Sitter so(4,2) and de Sitter so(5,1) algebras are presented. These deformations are called either time-type or space-type according to the dimensional properties of the deformation parameter. Their Hopf structure, universal R matrix and differential-difference realization are obtained in a unified setting by considering a contraction parameter related to the speed of light, which ensures a well defined non-relativistic limit. Such quantum algebras are shown to be symmetry algebras of either time or space discretizations of wave/Laplace equations on uniform lattices. These results lead to a proposal fortime and space discrete Maxwell equations with quantum algebra symmetry.

Abstract:
Extending early work, we formulate the large N matrix mechanics of general bosonic, fermionic and supersymmetric matrix models, including Matrix theory: The Hamiltonian framework of large N matrix mechanics provides a natural setting in which to study the algebras of the large N limit, including (reduced) Lie algebras, (reduced) supersymmetry algebras and free algebras. We find in particular a broad array of new free algebras which we call symmetric Cuntz algebras, interacting symmetric Cuntz algebras, symmetric Bose/Fermi/Cuntz algebras and symmetric Cuntz superalgebras, and we discuss the role of these algebras in solving the large N theory. Most important, the interacting Cuntz algebras are associated to a set of new (hidden) local quantities which are generically conserved only at large N. A number of other new large N phenomena are also observed, including the intrinsic nonlocality of the (reduced) trace class operators of the theory and a closely related large N field identification phenomenon which is associated to another set (this time nonlocal) of new conserved quantities at large N.

Abstract:
The quantum symmetry group of the inductive limit of C*-algebras equipped with orthogonal filtrations is shown to be the projective limit of the quantum symmetry groups of the C*-algebras appearing in the sequence. Some explicit examples of such projective limits are studied, including the case of quantum symmetry groups of the duals of finite symmetric groups, which do not fit directly into the framework of the main theorem and require further specific study. The investigations reveal a deep connection between quantum symmetry groups of discrete group duals and the doubling construction for Hopf algebras.

Abstract:
We note that in the limit where the NN 1S0 and 3S1 scattering lengths, a^(1S0) and a^(3S1), go to infinity, the leading terms in the effective field theory for strong NN interactions are invariant under Wigner's SU(4) spin-isospin symmetry. This explains why the leading effects of radiation pions on the S-wave NN scattering amplitudes vanish as a^(1S0) and a^(3S1) go to infinity. The implications of Wigner symmetry for NN to NN axion and gamma d to n p are also considered.

Abstract:
Guided by the generalized conformal symmetry, we investigate the extension of AdS-CFT correspondence to the matrix model of D-particles in the large N limit. We perform a complete harmonic analysis of the bosonic linearized fluctuations around a heavy D-particle background in IIA supergravity in 10 dimensions and find that the spectrum precisely agrees with that of the physical operators of Matrix theory. The explicit forms of two-point functions give predictions for the large $N$ behavior of Matrix theory with some special cutoff. We discuss the possible implications of our results for the large N dynamics of D-particles and for the Matrix-theory conjecture. We find an anomalous scaling behavior with respect to the large N limit associated to the infinite momentum limit in 11 dimensions, suggesting the existence of a screening mechanism for the transverse extension of the system.

Abstract:
Many physical systems like supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories are formulated as quantum matrix models. We discuss how to apply the Beth ansatz to exactly solve some supersymmetric quantum matrix models in the large-N limit. Toy models are constructed out of the one-dimensional Hubbard and t-J models as illustrations.

Abstract:
Using the dynamical triangulation approach we perform a numerical study of a supersymmetric random surface model that corresponds to the large N limit of the four-dimensional version of the IKKT matrix model. We show that the addition of fermionic degrees of freedom suppresses the spiky world-sheet configurations that are responsible for the pathological behaviour of the purely bosonic model. We observe that the distribution of the gyration radius has a power-like tail p(R) ~ R^{-2.4}. We check numerically that when the number of fermionic degrees of freedom is not susy-balanced, p(R) grows with $R$ and the model is not well-defined. Numerical sampling of the configurations in the tail of the distribution shows that the bosonic degrees of freedom collapse to a one-dimensional tube with small transverse fluctuations. Assuming that the vertex positions can fluctuate independently within the tube, we give a theoretical argument which essentially explains the behaviour of p(R) in the different cases, in particular predicting p(R) ~ R^{-3} in the supersymmetric case. Extending the argument to six and ten dimensions, we predict p(R) ~ R^{-7} and p(R) ~ R^{-15}, respectively.

Abstract:
Based on a gas picture of D0-brane partons, it is shown that the entropy, as well as the geometric size of an infinitely boosted Schwarzschild black hole, can be accounted for in matrix theory by interactions involving spins, or interactions involving more than two bodies simultaneously.

Abstract:
We show how any integrable 2D QFT enjoys the existence of infinitely many non--abelian {\it conserved} charges satisfying a Yang--Baxter symmetry algebra. These charges are generated by quantum monodromy operators and provide a representation of $q-$deformed affine Lie algebras. We review and generalize the work of de Vega, Eichenherr and Maillet on the bootstrap construction of the quantum monodromy operators to the sine--Gordon (or massive Thirring) model, where such operators do not possess a classical analogue. Within the light--cone approach to the mT model, we explicitly compute the eigenvalues of the six--vertex alternating transfer matrix $\tau(\l)$ on a generic physical state, through algebraic Bethe ansatz. In the thermodynamic limit $\tau(\l)$ turns out to be a two--valued periodic function. One determination generates the local abelian charges, including energy and momentum, while the other yields the abelian subalgebra of the (non--local) YB algebra. In particular, the bootstrap results coincide with the ratio between the two determinations of the lattice transfer matrix.