Abstract:
Elliptic soliton solutions, i.e., a hierarchy of functions based on an elliptic seed solution, are constructed using an elliptic Cauchy kernel, for integrable lattice equations of Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) type. This comprises the lattice KP, modified KP (mKP) and Schwarzian KP (SKP) equations as well as Hirota's bilinear KP equation, and their successive continuum limits. The reduction to the elliptic soliton solutions of KdV type lattice equations is also discussed.

Abstract:
By using disipative version of the second and the third members of AKNS hierarchy, a new method to solve 2+1 dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP-II) equation is proposed. We show that dissipative solitons (dissipatons) of those members give rise to the real solitons of KP-II. From the Hirota bilinear form of the SL(2,R) AKNS flows, we formulate a new bilinear representation for KP-II, by which, one and two soliton solutions are constructed and the resonance character of their mutual interactions is studied. By our bilinear form, we first time created four virtual soliton resonance solution for KP-II and established relations of it with degenerate four-soliton solution in the Hirota-Satsuma bilinear form for KP-II.

Abstract:
We consider $N$-soliton solutions of the KP equation, (-4u_t+u_{xxx}+6uu_x)_x+3u_{yy}=0 . An $N$-soliton solution is a solution $u(x,y,t)$ which has the same set of $N$ line soliton solutions in both asymptotics $y\to\infty$ and $y\to -\infty$. The $N$-soliton solutions include all possible resonant interactions among those line solitons. We then classify those $N$-soliton solutions by defining a pair of $N$-numbers $({\bf n}^+,{\bf n}^-)$ with ${\bf n}^{\pm}=(n_1^{\pm},...,n_N^{\pm}), n_j^{\pm}\in\{1,...,2N\}$, which labels $N$ line solitons in the solution. The classification is related to the Schubert decomposition of the Grassmann manifolds Gr$(N,2N)$, where the solution of the KP equation is defined as a torus orbit. Then the interaction pattern of $N$-soliton solution can be described by the pair of Young diagrams associated with $({\bf n}^+,{\bf n}^-)$. We also show that $N$-soliton solutions of the KdV equation obtained by the constraint $\partial u/\partial y=0$ cannot have resonant interaction.

Abstract:
It is by now well known that the wave functions of rational solutions to the KP hierarchy which can be achieved as limits of the pure $n$-soliton solutions satisfy an eigenvalue equation for ordinary differential operators in the spectral parameter. This property is known as ``bispectrality'' and has proved to be both interesting and useful. In a recent preprint (math-ph/9806001) evidence was presented to support the conjecture that all KP solitons (including their rational degenerations) are bispectral if one also allows translation operators in the spectral parameter. In this note, the conjecture is verified, and thus it is shown that all KP solitons have a form of bispectrality. The potential significance of this result to the duality of the classical Ruijsenaars and Sutherland particle systems is briefly discussed.

Abstract:
The main purpose of this paper is to give a survey of recent development on a classification of soliton solutions of the KP equation. The paper is self-contained, and we give a complete proof for the theorems needed for the classification. The classification is based on the Schubert decomposition of the real Grassmann manifold, Gr$(N,M)$, the set of $N$-dimensional subspaces in $\mathbb{R}^M$. Each soliton solution defined on Gr$(N,M)$ asymptotically consists of the $N$ number of line-solitons for $y\gg 0$ and the $M-N$ number of line-solitons for $y\ll 0$. In particular, we give the detailed description of those soliton solutions associated with Gr$(2,4)$, which play a fundamental role of multi-soliton solutions. We then consider a physical application of some of those solutions related to the Mach reflection discussed by J. Miles in 1977.

Abstract:
The Wick-type stochastic KP equation is researched. The stochastic single-soliton solutions and stochastic multisoliton solutions are shown by using the Hermite transform and Darboux transformation. 1. Introduction In recent decades, there has been an increasing interest in taking random effects into account in modeling, analyzing, simulating, and predicting complex phenomena, which have been widely recognized in geophysical and climate dynamics, materials science, chemistry biology, and other areas, see [1, 2]. If the problem is considered in random environment, the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) are appropriate mathematical models for complex systems under random influences or noise. So far, we know that the random wave is an important subject of stochastic partial differential equations. In 1970, while studying the stability of the KdV soliton-like solutions with small transverse perturbations, Kadomtsev and Petviashvili [3] arrived at the two-dimensional version of the KdV equation: which is known as Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation. The KP equation appears in physical applications in two different forms with and , usually referred to as the KP-I and the KP-II equations. The number of physical applications for the KP equation is even larger than the number of physical applications for the KdV equation. It is well known that homogeneous balance method [4, 5] has been widely applied to derive the nonlinear transformations and exact solutions (especially the solitary waves) and Darboux transformation [6], as well as the similar reductions of nonlinear PDEs in mathematical physics. These subjects have been researched by many authors. For SPDEs, in [7], Holden et al. gave white noise functional approach to research stochastic partial differential equations in Wick versions, in which the random effects are taken into account. In this paper, we will use their theory and method to investigate the stochastic soliton solutions of Wick-type stochastic KP equation, which can be obtained in the influence of the random factors. The Wick-type stochastic KP equation in white noise environment is considered as the following form: which is the perturbation of the KP equation with variable coefficients: by random force , where is the Wick product on the Hida distribution space which is defined in Section 2, and are functions of , is Gaussian white noise, that is, and is a Brownian motion, is a function of for some constants , and is the Wick version of the function . This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the work function spaces are

Abstract:
We present a systematic way to construct solutions of the (n=5)-reduction of the BKP and CKP hierarchies from the general tau function of the KP hierarchy. We obtain the one-soliton, two-soliton, and periodic solution for the bi-directional Sawada-Kotera (bSK), the bi-directional Kaup-Kupershmidt (bKK) and also the bi-directional Satsuma-Hirota (bSH) equation. Different solutions such as left- and right-going solitons are classified according to the symmetries of the 5th roots of exp(i epsilon). Furthermore, we show that the soliton solutions of the n-reduction of the BKP and CKP hierarchies with n= 2 j +1, j=1, 2, 3, ..., can propagate along j directions in the 1+1 space-time domain. Each such direction corresponds to one symmetric distribution of the nth roots of exp(i epsilon). Based on this classification, we detail the existence of two-peak solitons of the n-reduction from the Grammian tau function of the sub-hierarchies BKP and CKP. If n is even, we again find two-peak solitons. Last, we obtain the "stationary" soliton for the higher-order KP hierarchy.

Abstract:
It is by now well known that the wave functions of rational solutions to the KP hierarchy (those which can be achieved as limits of the pure n-soliton solutions) satisfy an additional eigenvalue equation for ordinary differential operators in the spectral parameter. This property is known as ``bispectrality'' and has proved to be both interesting and useful. In this note, it is shown that certain (non-rational) soliton solutions of the KP hierarchy satisfy an eigenvalue equation for a non-local operator constructed by composing ordinary differential operators in the spectral parameter with translation operators in the spectral parameter, and therefore have a form of bispectrality as well. Considering the results relating ordinary bispectrality to the self-duality of the rational Calogero-Moser particle system, it seems likely that this new form of bispectrality should be related to the duality of the Ruijsenaars system.

Abstract:
We consider the initial value problems of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation for symmetric V-shape initial waves consisting of two semi-infinite line solitons with the same amplitude. Numerical simulations show that the solutions of the initial value problem approach asymptotically to certain exact solutions of the KP equation found recently in [Chakravarty and Kodama, JPA, 41 (2008) 275209]. We then use a chord diagram to explain the asymptotic result. We also demonstrate a real experiment of shallow water wave which may represent the solution discussed in this Letter.

Abstract:
The universal character is a generalization of the Schur function attached to a pair of partitions. We study an integrable system of q-difference equations satisfied by the universal characters, which is an extension of the q-KP hierarchy and is called the lattice q-UC hierarchy. We describe the lattice q-UC hierarchy as a compatibility condition of its associated linear system (Lax formalism) and explore an application to the q-Painleve equations via similarity reduction. In particular a higher-order analogue of the q-Painleve VI equation is presented.