Abstract:
We investigate the creation of a relative phase between two Bose-Einstein condensates, initially in number states, by detection of atoms and show how the system approaches a coherent state. Two very distinct time scales are found: one for the creation of the interference is of the order of the detection time for a few single atoms and another, for the preparation of coherent states, of the order of the detection time for a significant fraction of the total number of atoms. Approximate analytic solutions are derived and compared with exact numerical results.

Abstract:
We discuss a method to launch gap soliton-like structures in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates confined in optical traps. Bright vector solitons consisting of a superposition of two hyperfine Zeeman sublevels can be created for both attractive and repulsive interactions between the atoms. Their formation relies on the dynamics of the atomic internal ground states in two far-off resonant counterpropagating sigma^+ sigma^- polarized laser beams which form the optical trap. Numerical simulations show that these solitons can be prepared from a one-component state provided with an initial velocity.

Abstract:
A technique for vortex creation in trapped Bose-Einstein condensates is suggested: Vortices can be excited at the edge of a condensate and guided to the center by a laser beam moving along a spiral trajectory. Numerical simulations demonstrate the suggested technique. Parameter ranges for the method are given. Computer animations illustrate the dynamics of the guided vortices.

Abstract:
It is demonstrated that stable, standing dark solitons can be created in current dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensate experiments by the proper combination of phase and density engineering. Other combinations result in a widely controllable range of grey solitons. The phonon contribution is small and is calculated precisely. The ensuing dynamics should be observable in situ, i.e. without ballistic expansion of the condensate.

Abstract:
We formulate particle creation phenomena in Bose--Einstein condensates in terms of conserving gapless mean field theory for weakly interacting Bose gases. The particle creation spectrum is calculated by rediagonalizing the Bogoliubov--de Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian in mean field theory. The conservation implies that quasiparticle creation is accompanied by quantum backreaction to the condensates. Particle creation in this mean field theory is found to be equivalent to that in quantum field theory (QFT) in curved spacetime. An expression is obtained for an effective metric affected by quantum backreaction. The formula for the particle creation spectrum obtained in terms of QFT in curved spacetime is shown to be the same as that given by rediagonalizing the BdG Hamiltonian.

Abstract:
We consider how macroscopic quantum superpositions may be created from arrays of Bose-Einstein condensates. We study a system of three condensates in Fock states, all with the same number of atoms and show that this has the form of a highly entangled superposition of different quasi-momenta. We then show how, by partially releasing these condensates and detecting an interference pattern where they overlap, it is possible to create a macroscopic superposition of different relative phases for the remaining portions of the condensates. We discuss methods for confirming these superpositions.

Abstract:
We analyze the generation and mobility of discrete solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates confined in an optical lattice under realistic experimental conditions. We discuss first the creation of 1D discrete solitons, for both attractive and repulsive interatomic interactions. We then address the issue of their mobility, focusing our attention on the conditions for the experimental observability of the Peierls-Nabarro barrier. Finally we report on the generation of self-trapped structures in two and three dimensions. Discrete solitons may open alternative routes for the manipulation and transport of Bose-Einstein condensates.

Abstract:
We show that a moving obstacle, in the form of an elongated paddle, can create vortices that are dispersed, or induce clusters of like-signed vortices in 2D Bose-Einstein condensates. We propose new statistical measures of clustering based on Ripley's K-function which are suitable to the small size and small number of vortices in atomic condensates, which lack the huge number of length scales excited in larger classical and quantum turbulent fluid systems. The evolution and decay of clustering is analyzed using these measures. Experimentally it should prove possible to create such an obstacle by a laser beam and a moving optical mask. The theoretical techniques we present are accessible to experimentalists and extend the current methods available to induce 2D quantum turbulence in Bose-Einstein condensates.

Abstract:
We propose and analyze a scheme to create dark solitons and vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates. This is achieved starting from a condensate in the internal state $|a>$ and transferring the atoms to the internal state $|b>$ via a Raman transition induced by laser light. By scanning adiabatically the Raman detuning, dark solitons and vortices are created.

Abstract:
We present a straightforward scheme for creating macroscopic superpositions of different superfluid flow states of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in optical lattices. This scheme has the great advantage that all the techniques required are achievable with current experiments. Furthermore, the relative difficulty of creating cats scales favorably with the size of the cat. This means that this scheme may be well-suited to creating superpositions involving large numbers of particles. Such states may have interesting technological applications such as making quantum-limited measurements of angular momentum.