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Clumpy tori illuminated by the anisotropic radiation of accretion discs in active galactic nuclei  [PDF]
Jian-Jian He,Yuan Liu,Shuang-Nan Zhang
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2583
Abstract: In this paper, we try to explain the observed correlation between the covering factor (CF) of hot dust and the properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), e.g., the bolometric luminosity ($L_{\rm{bol}}$) and black hole mass ($M_{\rm{BH}}$). Combining the possible dust distribution in the torus, the angular dependence of the radiation of the accretion disc, and the relation between the critical angle of torus and the Eddington ratio, there are eight possible models investigated in our work. We fit the observed CF with these models to determine the parameters of them. As a result, clumpy torus models can generally explain the observed correlations of tori, while the smooth models fail to produce the required CFs. However, there is still significant scatter even for the best-fitting model, which is the combination of a clumpy torus illuminated by the anisotropic radiation of accretion disc in an AGN. Although some of the observed scatter is due to the uncertainties in measuring $L_{\rm{bol}}$ and $M_{\rm{BH}}$, other factors are required in more realistic model. The models examined in this paper are not necessary to be the physical model of tori. However, the reasonable assumptions selected during this process should be helpful in constructing physical models of tori.
Near-Infrared Reverberation by Dusty Clumpy Tori in Active Galactic Nuclei  [PDF]
Toshihiro Kawaguchi,Masao Mori
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/737/2/105
Abstract: According to recent models, the accretion disk and black hole in active galactic nuclei are surrounded by a clumpy torus. We investigate the NIR flux variation of the torus in response to a UV flash for various geometries. Anisotropic illumination by the disk and the torus self-occultation contrast our study with earlier works. Both the waning effect of each clump and the torus self-occultation selectively reduce the emission from the region with a short delay. Therefore, the NIR delay depends on the viewing angle (where a more inclined angle leads to a longer delay) and the time response shows an asymmetric profile with a negative skewness, opposing to the results for optically thin tori. The range of the computed delay coincides with the observed one, suggesting that the viewing angle is primarily responsible for the scatter of the observed delay. We also propose that the red NIR-to-optical color of type-1.8/1.9 objects is caused by not only the dust extinction but also the intrinsically red color. Compared with the modest torus thickness, both a thick and a thin tori display the weaker NIR emission. A selection bias is thus expected such that NIR-selected AGNs tend to possess moderately thick tori. A thicker torus shows a narrower and more heavily skewed time profile, while a thin torus produces a rapid response. A super-Eddington accretion rate leads to a much weaker NIR emission due to the disk self-occultation and the disk truncation by the self-gravity. A long delay is expected from an optically thin and/or a largely misaligned torus. A very weak NIR emission, such as in hot-dust-poor active nuclei, can arise from a geometrically thin torus, a super-Eddington accretion rate or a slightly misaligned torus.
Innermost structure and near-infrared radiation of dusty clumpy tori in active galactic nuclei  [PDF]
Toshihiro Kawaguchi
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The dusty clumpy torus surrounds the central black hole (BH) and the accretion disk in active galactic nuclei, and governs the growth of super-massive BHs via gas fueling towards the central engine. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring observations have revealed that the torus inner radius is determined by the dust sublimation process. However, the observed radii are systematically smaller than the theoretical predictions by a factor of three. We take into account the anisotropic illumination by the central accretion disk to the torus, and calculate the innermost structure of the torus and the NIR time variablity. We then show that the anisotropy naturally solves the systematic descrepancy and that the viewing angle is the primary source to produce an object-to-object scatter of the NIR time delay. Dynamics of clumps at the innermost region of the torus will be unveiled via future high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy (e.g., Astro-H).
The quenching of star formation in accretion-driven clumpy turbulent tori of active galactic nuclei  [PDF]
B. Vollmer,R. I. Davies
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201321409
Abstract: Galactic gas-gas collisions involving a turbulent multiphase ISM share common ISM properties: dense extraplanar gas visible in CO, large linewidths (>= 50 km/s), strong mid-infrared H_2 line emission, low star formation activity, and strong radio continuum emission. Gas-gas collisions can occur in the form of ICM ram pressure stripping, galaxy head-on collisions, compression of the intragroup gas and/or galaxy ISM by an intruder galaxy which flies through the galaxy group at a high velocity, or external gas accretion on an existing gas torus in a galactic center. We suggest that the common theme of all these gas-gas interactions is adiabatic compression of the ISM leading to an increase of the turbulent velocity dispersion of the gas. The turbulent gas clouds are then overpressured and star formation is quenched. Within this scenario we developed a model for turbulent clumpy gas disks where the energy to drive turbulence is supplied by external infall or the gain of potential energy by radial gas accretion within the disk. The cloud size is determined by the size of a C-type shock propagating in dense molecular clouds with a low ionization fraction at a given velocity dispersion. We give expressions for the expected volume and area filling factors, mass, density, column density, and velocity dispersion of the clouds. The latter is based on scaling relations of intermittent turbulence whose open parameters are estimated for the CND in the Galactic Center. The properties of the model gas clouds and the external mass accretion rate necessary for the quenching of the star formation rate due to adiabatic compression are consistent with those derived from high-resolution H_2 line observations. Based on these findings, a scenario for the evolution of gas tori in galactic centers is proposed and the implications for star formation in the Galactic Center are discussed.
Radiatively enhanced elasticity and turbulence in clumpy tori of Active Galactic Nuclei  [PDF]
Martin Krause,Marc Schartmann,Andreas Burkert,Max Camenzind
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: The paper assumes radiation forces proportional to distance between equal temperature clouds. However, we assume there are clouds in any direction. The forces then cancel almost entirely, besides small velocity effects. Therefore, the presented theory is inadequate.
Search for molecular absorption in the tori of active galactic nuclei  [PDF]
M. Drinkwater,F. Combes,T. Wiklind
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: We describe a search for molecular absorption at millimetre wavelengths associated with dusty molecular tori in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The sample observed consists of 11 flat-spectrum radio sources known to have red optical to infra-red colours plus two steep-spectrum narrow-line radio galaxies. Spectra of the sources were obtained in the 3-, 2- and 1.3-millimetre bands at frequencies corresponding to common molecular transitions of CO, HCO+, HCN and CS at the AGN redshift. No absorptions were detected in any of the sources. We calculated upper limits to the column density in molecular absorption, using an excitation temperature of 10 K, to be N(CO) < 10^{15} - 10^{16} cm^-2, equivalent to hydrogen columns of order N(H) < 10^{19} - 10^{20} cm^-2. These limits are significantly lower than the values N(H) \approx (2 - 6) 10^{21} cm^-2 that might be expected if the red colours of these sources were due to dust absorption at the quasar redshift as suggested by Webster et al. (1995). Should the excitation temperature of the molecular transitions be higher than 100K, the upper limits to the H2 column densities would be greater than those derived from the red colours. To explain the lack of molecular absorption we conclude that either the optical extinction takes place outside the host galaxy (along the line of sight), or the excitation temperature of the molecular transitions is very high, or the obscuration is not associated with significant amounts of cold molecular gas. It is quite possible that the hard X-ray flux from the central source of these AGN is strong enough to photo-dissociate the molecules.
A direct comparison of X-ray spectral models for tori in active galactic nuclei  [PDF]
Yuan Liu,Xiaobo Li
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnrasl/slu198
Abstract: Several X-ray spectral models for tori in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are available to constrain the properties of tori; however, the accuracy of these models has not been verified. We recently construct a code for the torus using Geant4, which can easily handle different geometries (Liu & Li 2014). Thus, we adopt the same assumptions as Murphy & Yaqoob (2009, hereafter MY09) and Brightman & Nandra (2011, hereafter BN11) and try to reproduce their spectra. As a result, we can reproduce well the reflection spectra and the strength of the Fe K$\alpha$ line of MY09, for both $\NH=10^{24}$ and $10^{25}$ cm$^{-2}$. However, we cannot produce the strong reflection component of BN11 in the low-energy band. The origin of this component is the reflection from the visible inner wall of the torus, and it should be very weak in the edge-on directions under the geometry of BN11. Therefore, the behaviour of the reflection spectra in BN11 is not consistent with their geometry. The strength of the Fe K$\alpha$ line of BN11 is also different from our results and the analytical result in the optically thin case. The limitation of the spectral model will bias the parameters from X-ray spectral fitting.
Properties of dusty tori in active galactic nuclei - II. Type 2 AGN  [PDF]
Evanthia Hatziminaoglou,Jacopo Fritz,Tom Jarrett
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15390.x
Abstract: (abridged) This paper is the second part of a work investigating the properties of dusty tori in AGN by means of multi-component SED fitting. It focuses on low luminosity, low redshift (z < 0.25) AGN selected among emission line galaxies as well as X-ray, radio and mid-infrared selected type 2 AGN samples from the literature. The available multi-band photometry covers the spectral range from the u-band up to 160 um. The observed SED of each object is fit to a set of multi-component models comprising a stellar component, a high optical depth torus and cold emission from a starburst (SB). The contribution of the various components (stars, torus, SB) is reflected in the position of the objects on the IRAC colour diagram. The comparison of type 1 (as derived from Hatziminaoglou et al. 2008) and type 2 AGN properties is broadly consistent with the Unified Scheme. The estimated ratio between type 2 and type 1 objects is about 2-2.5:1. The AGN accretion-to-infrared luminosity ratio is an indicator of the obscuration of the AGN since it scales down with the covering factor. We find evidence supporting the receding torus paradigm, with the estimated fraction of obscured AGN decreasing with increasing optical luminosity over four orders of magnitude. The average star formation rates are of ~ 10, 40 and 115 Mo/yr for the low-z, type 2 and quasar samples, respectively; but this might simply reflect observational biases, as our quasars are one to two orders of magnitude more luminous than the type 2 AGN. For the majority of objects with 70 and/or 160 um detections an SB component was needed in order to reproduce the data points, implying that the far-infrared emission in AGN arises mostly from star formation; moreover, the SB-to-AGN luminosity ratio shows a slight trend with increasing luminosity.
Revisiting the Unified Model of Active Galactic Nuclei  [PDF]
Hagai Netzer
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1146/annurev-astro-082214-122302
Abstract: This review describes recent developments related to the unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGN). It focuses on new ideas about the origin and properties of the central obscurer (torus), and the connection with its surrounding. The review does not address radio unification. AGN tori must be clumpy but the uncertainties about their properties are still large. Todays most promising models involve disk winds of various types and hydrodynamical simulations that link the large scale galactic disk to the inner accretion flow. IR studies greatly improved the understanding of the spectral energy distribution of AGNs but they are hindered by various selection effects. X-ray samples are more complete. A basic relationship which is still unexplained is the dependence of the torus covering factor on luminosity. There is also much confusion regarding "real type-II AGNs" that do not fit into a simple unification scheme. The most impressive recent results are due to IR interferometry, which is not in accord with most torus models, and the accurate mapping of central ionization cones. AGN unification may not apply to merging systems and is possibly restricted to secularly evolving galaxies.
No More Active Galactic Nuclei in Clumpy Disks Than in Smooth Galaxies at z~2 in CANDELS / 3D-HST  [PDF]
Jonathan R. Trump,Guillermo Barro,Stephanie Juneau,Benjamin J. Weiner,Bin Luo,Gabriel B. Brammer,Eric F. Bell,W. Niel Brandt,Avishai Dekel,Yicheng Guo,Philip F. Hopkins,David C. Koo,Dale D. Kocevski,Daniel H. McIntosh,Ivelina Momcheva,S. M. Faber,Henry C. Ferguson,Norman A. Grogin,Jeyhan Kartaltepe,Anton M. Koekemoer,Jennifer Lotz,Michael Maseda,Mark Mozena,Kirpal Nandra,David J. Rosario,Gregory R. Zeimann
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/793/2/101
Abstract: We use CANDELS imaging, 3D-HST spectroscopy, and Chandra X-ray data to investigate if active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially fueled by violent disk instabilities funneling gas into galaxy centers at 1.3
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