Abstract:
We show that for rotating harmonically trapped Bose gases in a fractional quantum Hall state, the anyonic excitation statistics in the rotating gas can effectively play a {\em dynamical} role. For particular values of the two-dimensional coupling constant $g = -2\pi \hbar^2 (2k-1)/m$, where $k$ is a positive integer, the system becomes a noninteracting gas of anyons, with exactly obtainable solutions satisfying Bogomol'nyi self-dual order parameter equations. Attractive Bose gases under rapid rotation thus can be stabilized in the thermodynamic limit due to the anyonic statistics of their quasiparticle excitations.

Abstract:
A bosonic analogue of the fractional quantum Hall eff ect occurs in rapidly rotating trapped Bose gases: There is a transition from uncorrelated Hartree states to strongly correlated states such as the Laughlin wave function. This physics may be described by eff ective Hamiltonians with delta interactions acting on a bosonic N-body Bargmann space of analytic functions. In a previous paper [N. Rougerie, S. Serfaty, J. Yngvason, Phys. Rev. A 87, 023618 (2013)] we studied the case of a quadratic plus quartic trapping potential and derived conditions on the parameters of the model for its ground state to be asymptotically strongly correlated. This relied essentially on energy upper bounds using quantum Hall trial states, incorporating the correlations of the Bose-Laughlin state in addition to a multiply quantized vortex pinned at the origin. In this paper we investigate in more details the density of these trial states, thereby substantiating further the physical picture described in [N. Rougerie, S. Serfaty, J. Yngvason, Phys. Rev. A 87, 023618 (2013)], improving our energy estimates and allowing to consider more general trapping potentials. Our analysis is based on the interpretation of the densities of quantum Hall trial states as Gibbs measures of classical 2D Coulomb gases (plasma analogy). New estimates on the mean- field limit of such systems are presented.

Abstract:
We show that the recently discovered thermodynamic equivalence between noninteracting Bose and Fermi gases in two dimensions, and between one-dimensional Bose and Fermi systems with linear dispersion, both in the grand-canonical ensemble, are special cases of a larger class of equivalences of noninteracting systems having an energy-independent single-particle density of states. We also conjecture that the same equivalence will hold in the grand-canonical ensemble for any noninteracting quantum gas with a discrete ladder-type spectrum whenever $\sigma \Delta / N k_{\rm B} T$ is small, where $N$ is the average particle number and $\sigma$ its standard deviation, $\Delta$ is the level spacing, $k_{\rm B}$ is Boltzmann's constant, and $T$ is the temperature.

Abstract:
The mean ground state occupation number and condensate fluctuations of interacting and non-interacting Bose gases confined in a harmonic trap are considered by using a canonical ensemble approach. To obtain the mean ground state occupation number and the condensate fluctuations, an analytical description for the probability distribution function of the condensate is provided directly starting from the analysis of the partition function of the system. For the ideal Bose gas, the probability distribution function is found to be a Gaussian one for the case of the harmonic trap. For the interacting Bose gas, using a unified approach the condensate fluctuations are calculated based on the lowest-order perturbation method and on Bogoliubov theory. It is found that the condensate fluctuations based on the lowest-order perturbation theory follow the law $\sim N$, while the fluctuations based on Bogoliubov theory behave as $N^{4/3}$.

Abstract:
Using a field-theoretic approach, we systematically generalize the usual semiclassical approximation for a harmonically trapped ideal Bose gas in such a way that its range of applicability is essentially extended. With this we can analytically calculate thermodynamic properties even for small particle numbers. In particular, it now becomes possible to determine the critical temperature as well as the temperature dependence of both heat capacity and condensate fraction in low-dimensional traps, where the standard semiclassical approximation is not even applicable.

Abstract:
Novel ground state properties of rotating Bose gases have been intensively studied in the context of neutral cold atoms. We investigate the rotating Bose gas in a trap from a thermodynamic perspective, taking the charged ideal Bose gas in magnetic field (which is equivalent to a neutral gas in a synthetic magnetic field) as an example. It is indicated that the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature is irrelevant to the magnetic field, conflicting with established intuition that the critical temperature decreases with the field increasing. The specific heat and Landau diamagnetization also exhibit intriguing behaviors. In contrast, we demonstrate that the condensation temperature for neutral Bose gases in a rotating frame drops to zero in the fast rotation limit, signaling a non-condensed quantum phase in the ground state.

Abstract:
We prove that the Gross-Pitaevskii equation correctly describes the ground state energy and corresponding one-particle density matrix of rotating, dilute, trapped Bose gases with repulsive two-body interactions. We also show that there is 100% Bose-Einstein condensation. While a proof that the GP equation correctly describes non-rotating or slowly rotating gases was known for some time, the rapidly rotating case was unclear because the Bose (i.e., symmetric) ground state is not the lowest eigenstate of the Hamiltonian in this case. We have been able to overcome this difficulty with the aid of coherent states. Our proof also conceptually simplifies the previous proof for the slowly rotating case. In the case of axially symmetric traps, our results show that the appearance of quantized vortices causes spontaneous symmetry breaking in the ground state.

Abstract:
We discuss the feasibility of quantum Hall states of vortices in trapped low-density two-dimensional Bose gases with large particle interactions. For interaction strengths larger than a critical dimensionless 2D coupling constant $g_c \approx 0.6$, upon increasing the rotation frequency, the system is shown to spatially separate into vortex lattice and melted vortex lattice (vortex liquid) phases. At a first critical frequency, the lattice melts completely, and strongly correlated vortex and particle quantum Hall liquids coexist in inner respectively outer regions of the gas cloud. Finally, at a second critical frequency, the vortex liquid disappears and the strongly correlated particle quantum Hall state fills the whole sample.

Abstract:
We solve the problem of a Bose or Fermi gas in $d$-dimensions trapped by $% \delta \leq d$ mutually perpendicular harmonic oscillator potentials. From the grand potential we derive their thermodynamic functions (internal energy, specific heat, etc.) as well as a generalized density of states. The Bose gas exhibits Bose-Einstein condensation at a nonzero critical temperature $T_{c}$ if and only if $d+\delta >2$, and a jump in the specific heat at $T_{c}$ if and only if $d+\delta >4$. Specific heats for both gas types precisely coincide as functions of temperature when $d+\delta =2$. The trapped system behaves like an ideal free quantum gas in $d+\delta $ dimensions. For $\delta =0$ we recover all known thermodynamic properties of ideal quantum gases in $d$ dimensions, while in 3D for $\delta =$ 1, 2 and 3 one simulates behavior reminiscent of quantum {\it wells, wires}and{\it dots}, respectively.

Abstract:
The role of anyonic excitations in fast rotating harmonically trapped Bose gases in a fractional Quantum Hall state is examined. Standard Chern-Simons anyons as well as "non standard" anyons obtained from a statistical interaction having Maxwell-Chern-Simons dynamics and suitable non minimal coupling to matter are considered. Their respective ability to stabilize attractive Bose gases under fast rotation in the thermodynamical limit is studied. Stability can be obtained for standard anyons while for non standard anyons, stability requires that the range of the corresponding statistical interaction does not exceed the typical wavelenght of the atoms.