Abstract:
Using detailed balance and scaling properties of integrals that appear in the Coulomb gas reformulation of quantum impurity problems, we establish exact relations between the nonequilibrium quantum decay rates of the boundary sine-Gordon and the anisotropic Kondo model at zero temperature. Combining these results with findings from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, we derive exact closed form expressions for the quantum decay rate of the dissipative two-state system in the scaling limit. These expressions illustrate how the crossover from weak to strong tunneling takes place. We trace out the regimes in which the usually applied Golden Rule (nonadiabatic) rate expression fails. Using a conjectured correspondence between the relaxation and dephasing rate, we obtain the exact lower bound of the dephasing rate as a function of bias and dissipation strength.

Abstract:
The mapping of steady-state nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory from the lattice to the impurity is described in detail. Our focus is on the case with current flow under a constant dc electric field of arbitrary magnitude. In addition to formulating the problem via path integrals and functional derivatives, we also describe the distribution function dependence of the retarded and advanced Green's functions. Our formal developments are exact for the Falicov-Kimball model. We also show how these formal developments are modified for more complicated models (like the Hubbard model).

Abstract:
We consider a quantum harmonic oscillator coupled to a general nonequilibrium environment. We show that the decoherence factor can be expressed in terms of a measurable effective temperature, defined via a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relation. We further propose a simple experimental scheme to determine the time-dependent effective temperature in a linear Paul trap with engineered reservoirs. Our formalism allows quantitative description of nonequilibrium decoherence in the presence of an arbitrary number of non-Markovian noise sources in a unified manner.

Abstract:
A Monte Carlo sampling of diagrammatic corrections to the non-crossing approximation is shown to provide numerically exact estimates of the long-time dynamics and steady state properties of nonequilibrium quantum impurity models. This `bold' expansion converges uniformly in time and significantly ameliorates the sign problem that has heretofore limited the power of real-time Monte Carlo approaches to strongly interacting real-time quantum problems. The new approach enables the study of previously intractable problems ranging from generic long time nonequilibrium transport characteristics in systems with large onsite repulsion to the direct description of spectral functions on the real frequency axis in Dynamical Mean Field Theory.

Abstract:
the main steps in the development of the ideas on decoherence are briefly reviewed, together with their present achievements. unsolved problems are also pointed out.

Abstract:
We treat the nonequilibrium motion of a single impurity atom in a low-temperature single-species Fermi sea, interacting via a contact interaction. In the nonequilibrium regime, the impurity does a superdiffusive geometric random walk where the typical distance traveled grows with time as $\sim t^{d/(d+1)}$ for the $d$-dimensional system with $d\geq 2$. For nonzero temperature $T$, this crosses over to diffusive motion at long times with diffusivity $D\sim T^{-(d-1)/2}$. These results apply also to a nonzero concentration of impurity atoms as long as they remain dilute and nondegenerate.

Abstract:
We discuss the features of nonequilibrium growth problems, their scaling description and their differences from equilibrium problems. The emphasis is on the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation and the renormalization group point of view. Some of the recent developments along these lines are mentioned.

Abstract:
We study the evolution of reduced density matrix of an impurity coupled to a Fermi sea after the coupling is switched on at time $t=0$. We find the non-diagonal elements of the reduced density matrix decay exponentially, and the decay constant is the impurity level width $\Gamma$. And we study the information transfer rate between the impurity and the Fermi sea, which also decays exponentially. And the decay constant is $k\Gamma$ with $k=2\sim 4$. Our results reveal the relation between information transfer rate and decoherence rate.

Abstract:
We evaluate tunneling rates into/from a voltage biased quantum wire containing weak backscattering defect. Interacting electrons in such a wire form a true nonequilibrium state of the Luttinger liquid (LL). This state is created due to inelastic electron backscattering leading to the emission of nonequilibrium plasmons with typical frequency $\hbar \omega \leq U$. The tunneling rates are split into two edges. The tunneling exponent at the Fermi edge is positive and equals that of the equilibrium LL, while the exponent at the side edge $E_F-U$ is negative if Coulomb interaction is not too strong.

Abstract:
Henri Poincar\'e formulated the mathematics of the Lorentz transformations, known as the Poincar\'e group. He also formulated the Poincar\'e sphere for polarization optics. It is shown that these two mathematical instruments can be combined into one mathematical device which can address the internal space-time symmetries of elementary particles, decoherence problems in polarization optics, entropy problems, and Feynman's rest of the universe.