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 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20030121 Abstract: We present the data acquired by the TAROT automated observatory on the afterglow of GRB 020531. Up to now, no convincing afterglow emission has been reported for this short/hard GRB at any wavelength, including X-ray and optical. The combination of our early limits, with other published data allows us to put severe constraints on the afterglow magnitude and light curve. The limiting magnitude is 18.5 in R band, 88 minutes after the GRB, and the decay slope power law index could be larger than 2.2.
 Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1051/aas:1999344 Abstract: We calculate the light curve and spectra near the peak and the self absorption break, for an adiabatic blast wave described by the Blandford-McKee solution, considering the emission from the whole region behind the shock front. The expected light curve and spectra are flat near the peak. This rules out the interpretation of the sharp peak observed in the optical afterglow of GRB970508 as the expected peak of the light curve. The observed image of an afterglow is calculated for a broad range of frequencies. We show that for frequencies below the self absorption frequency the image is rather homogeneous, as opposed to the bright ring at the outer edge and dim center, which appear at higher frequencies. We fit the observed spectra of GRB970508 to the detailed theory and obtain estimates of the physical parameters of this burst.
 Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/306147 Abstract: The detection of delayed X-ray, optical and radio emission, "afterglow", associated with $\gamma$-ray bursts (GRBs) is consistent with fireball models, where the emission are produced by relativistic expanding blast wave, driven by expanding fireball at cosmogical distances. The emission mechanisms of GRB afterglow have been discussed by many authors and synchrotron radiation is believed to be the main mechanism. The observations show that the optical light curves of two observed gamma-ray bursts, GRB970228 and GRB GRB970508, can be described by a simple power law, which seems to support the synchrotron radiation explanation. However, here we shall show that under some circumstances, the inverse Compton scattering (ICS) may play an important role in emission spectrum and this may influence the temporal properties of GRB afterglow. We expect that the light curves of GRB afterglow may consist of multi-components, which depends on the fireball parameters.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1361570 Abstract: A possible relationship between the presence of a radio afterglow and gamma-ray burst spectral hardness is discussed. The correlation is marginally significant; the spectral hardness of the bursts with radio afterglows apparently results from a combination of the break energy Ebreak and the high-energy spectral index beta. If valid, this relationship would indicate that the afterglow does carry information pertaining to the GRB central engine.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/368158 Abstract: We report polarization measurements and photometry for the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 020405. We measured a highly significant 9.9% polarization (in V band) 1.3 days after the burst and argue that it is intrinsic to the GRB. The light curve decay is well fitted by a $t^{-1.72}$ power-law; we do not see any evidence for a break between 1.24 and 4.3 days after the burst. We discuss these measurements in the light of several models of GRB afterglows.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/342175 Abstract: We present radio observations of the afterglow of the bright gamma-ray burst GRB980329 made between one month and several years after the burst, a re-analysis of previously published submillimeter data, and late-time optical and near-infrared (NIR) observations of the host galaxy. From the absence of a spectral break in the optical/NIR colors of the host galaxy, we exclude the earlier suggestion that GRB980329 lies at a redshift of z >~5. We combine our data with the numerous multi-wavelength observations of the early afterglow, fit a comprehensive afterglow model to the entire broadband dataset, and derive fundamental physical parameters of the blast-wave and its host environment. Models for which the ejecta expand isotropically require both a high circumburst density and extreme radiative losses from the shock. No low density model (n << 10 cm^{-3}) fits the data. A burst with a total energy of ~ 10^{51} erg, with the ejecta narrowly collimated to an opening angle of a few degrees, driven into a surrounding medium with density ~ 20 cm^{-3}, provides a satisfactory fit to the lightcurves over a range of redshifts.
 Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/308052 Abstract: GRB afterglow is reasonably described by synchrotron emission from relativistic blast waves at cosmological distances. We perform detailed calculations taking into account the effect of synchrotron self absorption. We consider emission from the whole region behind the shock front, and use the Blandford McKee self similar solution to describe the fluid behind the shock. We calculate the spectra and the observed image of a GRB afterglow near the self absorption frequency $\nu_a$ and derive an accurate expression for $\nu_a$. We show that the image is rather homogeneous for $\nu<\nu_a$, as opposed to the bright ring at the outer edge and dim center, which appear at higher frequencies. We compare the spectra we obtain to radio observations of GRB970508. We combine the calculations of the spectra near the self absorption frequency with other parts of the spectra and obtain revised estimates for the physical parameters of the burst: $E_{52}=0.53$, $\epsilon_e=0.57$, $\epsilon_B=0.0082$, $n_1=5.3$. These estimates are different by up to two orders of magnitude than the estimates based on an approximate spectrum.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/312807 Abstract: We present wide-band radio observations spanning from 1.4 GHz to 350 GHz of the afterglow of GRB 991216, taken from 1 to 80 days after the burst. The optical and X-ray afterglow of this burst were fairly typical and are explained by a jet fireball. In contrast, the radio light curve is unusual in two respects: (a) the radio light curve does not show the usual rise to maximum flux on timescales of weeks and instead appears to be declining already on day 1 and (b) the power law indices show significant steepening from the radio through the X-ray bands. We show that the standard fireball model, in which the afterglow is from a forward shock, is unable to account for (b) and we conclude that the bulk of the radio emission must arise from a different source. We consider two models, neither of which can be ruled out with the existing data. In the first (conventional) model, the early radio emission is attributed to emission from the reverse shock as in the case of GRB 990123. We predict that the prompt optical emission would have been as bright (or brighter) than 8th magnitude. In the second (exotic) model, the radio emission originates from the forward shock of an isotropically energetic fireball (10^54 erg) expanding into a tenuous medium (10^-4 cm^-3). The resulting fireball would remain relativistic for months and is potentially resolvable with VLBI techniques. Finally, we note that the near-IR bump of the afterglow is similar to that seen in GRB 971214 and no fireball model can explain this bump.
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/373889 Abstract: The optical afterglow of gamma-ray burst 020813 was observed for 3 hours with the LRIS spectropolarimeter at the Keck-I telescope, beginning 4.7 hours after the burst was detected by HETE-2. The spectrum reveals numerous metal absorption lines that we identify with two systems at z=1.223 and z=1.255. We also detect an O II 3727 emission line at z=1.255 and we identify this galaxy as the likely host of the GRB. After a correction for Galactic interstellar polarization, the optical afterglow has a linear polarization of 1.8-2.4% during 4.7-7.9 hours after the burst. A measurement of p = 0.80% +/- 0.16% on the following night by Covino et al. demonstrates significant polarization variability over the next 14 hours. The lack of strong variability in the position angle of linear polarization indicates that the magnetic field in the jet is likely to be globally ordered rather than composed of a number of randomly oriented cells. Within the framework of afterglow models with collimated flows, the relatively low observed polarization suggests that the magnetic field components perpendicular and parallel to the shock front are only different by about 20%.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/781/1/37 Abstract: We present multiwavelength observations of the afterglow of GRB 130427A, the brightest (in total fluence) gamma-ray burst of the past 29 years. Optical spectroscopy from Gemini-North reveals the redshift of the GRB to be z=0.340, indicating that its unprecedented brightness is primarily the result of its relatively close proximity to Earth; the intrinsic luminosities of both the GRB and its afterglow are not extreme in comparison to other bright GRBs. We present a large suite of multiwavelength observations spanning from 300 s to 130 d after the burst and demonstrate that the afterglow shows relatively simple, smooth evolution at all frequencies with no significant late-time flaring or rebrightening activity. The entire dataset from 1 GHz to 10 GeV can be modeled as synchrotron emission from a combination of reverse and forward shocks in good agreement with the standard afterglow model, providing strong support to the applicability of the underlying theory and clarifying the nature of the GeV emission observed to last for minutes to hours following other very bright GRBs. A tenuous, wind-stratified circumburst density profile is required by the observations, suggesting a massive-star progenitor with a low mass-loss rate, perhaps due to low metallicity. GRBs similar in nature to GRB 130427A, inhabiting low-density media and exhibiting strong reverse shocks, are probably not uncommon but may have been difficult to recognize in the past due to their relatively faint late-time radio emission; more such events should be found in abundance by the new generation of sensitive radio and millimeter instruments.
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