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Panoramic Views of the Cygnus Loop  [PDF]
N. A. Levenson,James R. Graham,Luke D. Keller,Matthew J. Richter
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/313136
Abstract: We present a complete atlas of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant in the light of [O III] (5007), H alpha, and [S II] (6717, 6731). Despite its shell-like appearance, the Cygnus Loop is not a current example of a Sedov-Taylor blast wave. Rather, the optical emission traces interactions of the supernova blast wave with clumps of gas. The surrounding interstellar medium forms the walls of a cavity through which the blast wave now propagates, including a nearly complete shell in which non-radiative filaments are detected. The Cygnus Loop blast wave is not breaking out of a dense cloud, but is instead running into confining walls. The interstellar medium dominates not only the appearance of the Cygnus Loop but also the continued evolution of the blast wave. If this is a typical example of a supernova remnant, then global models of the interstellar medium must account for such significant blast wave deceleration.
Is the Cygnus Loop two supernova remnants?  [PDF]
B. Uyaniker,W. Reich,A. Yar,R. Kothes,E. Fuerst
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20020787
Abstract: The Cygnus Loop is classified as a middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) located below the Galactic equator (l=74, b=-8.6) and 770 pc away from us. Its large size and little confusion with Galactic emission makes it an ideal test ground for evolutionary and structural theories of SNRs. New radio continuum mapping of the Cygnus Loop at 2695 MHz with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope provides indications that the Cygnus Loop consists of two separate SNRs. Combining this result with data from the literature we argue that a secondary SNR exists in the south with a recently detected neutron star close to its center. Two interacting SNRs seem to be the best explanation to account for the Cygnus Loop observations at all wavelengths.
Temperature, brightness and spectral index of the Cygnus radio loop
Borka Jovanovic, V.;Urosevic, D;
Revista mexicana de astronomía y astrofísica , 2011,
Abstract: the estimated brightness of the cygnus loop supernova remnant (snr) at 2720, 1420, 820, 408 and 34.5 mhz is presented. the observations of the continuum radio emission are used to calculate the mean brightness temperatures and surface brightnesses of this loop at the five frequencies in a wide spectral range, using the method we have previously developed for large radio loops. the spectrum for mean temperatures versus frequency between the five frequencies is estimated and the spectral index of the cygnus loop is obtained. also, from our results it can be concluded that the cygnus loop evolves in a low density environment and that the initial energy of the supernova explosion was relatively low. the results obtained confirm the non-thermal origin of the cygnus radio loop and show that our method is applicable to almost all remnants.
Temperature, brightness and spectral index of the Cygnus radio loop  [PDF]
V. Borka Jovanovi?,D. Uro?evi?
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: The estimated brightness of the Cygnus loop supernova remnant (SNR) at 2720, 1420, 820, 408 and 34.5 MHz are presented. The observations of the continuum radio emission are used to calculate the mean brightness temperatures and surface brightnesses of this loop at the five frequencies in wide spectral range, using the method we have previously developed for large radio loops. The spectrum for mean temperatures versus frequency between the five frequencies is estimated and the spectral index of Cygnus loop is also obtained. Also, from our results can be concluded that Cygnus loop evolves in the low density environment and the initial energy of supernova explosion was relatively low. The obtained results confirm non-thermal origin of the Cygnus radio loop and show that our method is applicable to almost all remnants.
ASCA observation of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant  [PDF]
E. Miyata,H. Tsunemi,K. Koyama,Y. Ishisaki
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0273-1177(99)00798-X
Abstract: We present here the results of the mapping observation of the Cygnus Loop with the Gas Imaging Spectrometer (GIS) onboard the ASCA observatory. The data covered the entire region of the Cygnus Loop. Spatial resolution of the GIS is moderate whereas the energy resolving power is much better than those used in the previous observations. The ASCA soft-band image shows the well-known shell-like feature whereas the ASCA hard-band image shows rather center-filled morphology with a hard X-ray compact source at the blow-up southern region.
The warm interstellar medium around the Cygnus Loop  [PDF]
J. Bohigas,J. L. Sauvageot,A. Decourchelle
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1086/307247
Abstract: Observations of the oxygen lines [OII]3729 and [OIII]5007 in the medium immediately beyond the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant were carried out with the scanning Fabry-P\'erot spectrophotometer ESOP. Both lines were detected in three different directions - east, northeast and southwest - and up to a distance of 15 pc from the shock front. The ionized medium is in the immediate vicinity of the remnant, as evinced by the smooth brightening of both lines as the adiabatic shock transition (defined by the X-ray perimeter) is crossed. These lines are usually brighter around the Cygnus Loop than in the general background in directions where the galactic latitude is above 5 degrees. There is also marginal (but significant) evidence that the degree of ionization is somewhat larger around the Cygnus Loop. We conclude that the energy necessary to ionize this large bubble of gas could have been supplied by an O8 or O9 type progenitor or the particles heated by the expanding shock front. The second possibility, though highly atractive, would have to be assessed by extensive modelling.
Global Far-Ultraviolet Properties of the Cygnus Loop  [PDF]
Il-Joong Kim,Kwang-Il Seon,Yeo-Myeong Lim,Dae-Hee Lee,Wonyong Han,Kyoung-Wook Min,Jerry Edelstein
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/784/1/12
Abstract: We present the C III {\lambda}977, O VI {\lambda}{\lambda}1032, 1038 and N IV] {\lambda}1486 emission line maps of the Cygnus Loop, obtained with the newly processed data of Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation (SPEAR; also known as FIMS) mission. In addition, the Si IV+O IV] line complexes around 1400 {\AA} are resolved into two separate emission lines, whose intensity demonstrates a relatively high Si IV region predicted in the previous study. The morphological similarity between the O VI and X-ray images, as well as a comparison of the O VI intensity with the value expected from the X-ray results, indicates that large portions of the observed O VI emissions could be produced from X-ray emitting gas. Comparisons of the far-ultraviolet (FUV) images with the optical and H I 21 cm images, reveal spatial variations of shock-velocity populations and high FUV extinction in the direction of a previously identified H I cloud. By calculating the FUV line ratios for several subregions of the Cygnus Loop, we investigate the spatial variation of the population of radiative shock velocities; and the effects of resonance scattering, X-ray emitting gas, and non-radiative shocks. The FUV and X-ray luminosity comparisons between the Cygnus Loop and the Vela supernova remnant suggest that the fraction of shocks in the early evolutionary stages is much larger in the Cygnus Loop.
Metal Rich Plasma at the Center Portion of the Cygnus Loop  [PDF]
Emi Miyata,H. Tsunemi,T. Kohmura,S. Suzuki,S. Kumagai
Physics , 1998, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/50.2.257
Abstract: We observed the center portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant with the ASCA observatory. The X-ray spectrum of the center portion was significantly different from that obtained at the North-East (NE) limb. The emission lines from Si and S were quite strong while those of O and the continuum emission were similar to those obtained at the NE limb. Based on the spectral analysis, Si and S emission lines originated from a high-kTe and low ionization plasma whereas O and most of the continuum emission arose from a low-kTe and high ionization plasma. We suppose that Si and S emitting gas are present at the interior of the Loop while O lines and continuum emission mainly arise from the shell region. Therefore, we subtracted the spectrum of the NE limb from that of the center. Obtained abundances of Si, S, and Fe were 4 $\pm$ 1, 6 $\pm$ 2, and ${1.3}^{+0.6}_{-0.3}$ times higher than those of the cosmic abundances, respectively, and are $\sim$40 times richer than those obtained at the NE limb. These facts strongly support that some of the crude ejecta must be left at the center portion of the Cygnus Loop. The low abundance of Fe relative to Si and S suggests a type II SN with a massive progenitor star as the origin of the Cygnus Loop.
The Ejecta Distributions of the Heavy Elements in the Cygnus Loop  [PDF]
Hiroyuki Uchida,Hiroshi Tsunemi,Satoru Katsuda,Masashi Kimura,Hiroko Kosugi
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/61.2.301
Abstract: We analyzed the metal distribution of the Cygnus Loop using 14 and 7 pointings observation data obtained by the \textit{Suzaku} and the \textit{XMM-Newton} observatories. The spectral analysis shows that all the spectra are well fitted by the two-$kT_e$ non-equilibrium ionization plasma model as shown by the earlier observations. From the best-fit parameters of the high-$kT_e$ component, we calculated the emission measures about various elements and showed the metal distribution of the ejecta component. We found that the distributions of Si and Fe are centered at the southwest of the geometric center toward the blow-out region. From the best-fit parameters, we also estimated the progenitor mass of the Cygnus Loop from our field of view and the metal rich region with a radius of 25 arcmin from the metal center. The result from the metal circle is similar to that from our entire FOV, which suggests the mixing of the metal. From the results, we estimated the mass of the progenitor star at 12-15\MO.
A Detailed Analysis of a Cygnus Loop Shock-Cloud Interaction  [PDF]
Charles W. Danforth,William P. Blair,John C. Raymond
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/321161
Abstract: The XA region of the Cygnus Loop is a complex zone of radiative and nonradiative shocks interacting with interstellar clouds. We combine five far ultraviolet spectral observations from the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), a grid of 24 IUE spectra and a high-resolution longslit Halpha spectrum to study the spatial emission line variations across the region. These spectral data are placed in context using ground-based, optical emission line images of the region and a far-UV image obtained by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). The presence of high-ionization ions (OVI, NV, CIV) indicates a shock velocity near 170 km/s while other diagnostics indicate v_shock=140 km/s. It is likely that a large range of shock velocities may exist at a spatial scale smaller than we are able to resolve. By comparing CIV 1550, CIII 977 and CIII] 1909, we explore resonance scattering across the region. We find that a significant column depth is present at all positions, including those not near bright optical/UV filaments. Analysis of the OVI doublet ratio suggests an average optical depth of about unity in that ion while flux measurements of [SiVIII] 1443 suggest a hot component in the region at just below 10^6K. Given the brightness of the OVI emission and the age of the interaction, we rule out the mixing layer interpretation of the UV emission. Furthermore, we formulate a picture of the XA region as the encounter of the blast wave with a finger of dense gas protruding inward from the pre-SN cavity.
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