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 Physics , 2001, Abstract: We are undertaking a program to measure emission line ratios in a selected sample of $0.5 < z < 1.0$ CFRS starforming galaxies in order to compute their Interstellar Medium metallicities. The latter are derived by means of the empirically-calibrated $R_{23}$ estimator introduced by Pagel et al. (1979). Here we focus on a subsample of 15 galaxies with $L_{H\beta} > 1.2 \times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$. In addition to the optical CFHT spectra discussed in Carollo & Lilly (2001), where a preliminary account of this work can be found, in this paper we also refer to new $J$-band Keck spectroscopy of the $H\alpha$ and [NII]6583 lines for several objects. These lines allow us to break the degeneracy between low ($\lta 0.1Z_\odot$) and high ($\gta 0.5Z_\odot$) metallicity of the $R_{23}$ estimator, and put on solid ground the finding that the $0.5 < z < 1.0$ blue galaxies in the high-$L_{H\beta}$ sample are significantly metal-enriched ($Z \gta 0.3Z_\odot$ up to $Z_\odot$). Therefore, our results do not support previous suggestions in which the $0.5 < z < 1.0$ starforming galaxies are dwarf galaxies brightened by large bursts of star-formation, but support instead a picture where at least a significant fraction of them evolves to become today's massive metal-rich systems.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200911994 Abstract: This work aims to provide a first insight into the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation of star-forming galaxies at redshift z~1.4. To reach this goal, we present a first set of nine VVDS galaxies observed with the NIR integral-field spectrograph SINFONI on the VLT. Oxygen abundances are derived from empirical indicators based on the ratio between strong nebular emission-lines (Halpha, [NII]6584 and [SII]6717,6731). Stellar masses are deduced from SED fitting with Charlot & Bruzual (2007) population synthesis models, and star formation rates are derived from [OII]3727 and Halpha emission-line luminosities. We find a typical shift of 0.2-0.4 dex towards lower metallicities for the z~1.4 galaxies, compared to the MZ-relation in the local universe as derived from SDSS data. However, this small sample of eight galaxies does not show any clear correlation between stellar mass and metallicity, unlike other larger samples at different redshift (z~0, z~0.7, and z~2). Indeed, our galaxies lie just under the relation at z~2 and show a small trend for more massive galaxies to be more metallic (~0.1 logarithmic slope). There are two possible explanations to account for these observations. First, the most massive galaxies present higher specific star formation rates when compared to the global VVDS sample which could explain the particularly low metallicity of these galaxies as already shown in the SDSS sample. Second, inflow of metal-poor gas due to tidal interactions could also explain the low metallicity of these galaxies as two of these three galaxies show clear signatures of merging in their velocity fields. Finally, we find that the metallicity of 4 galaxies is lower by ~0.2 to 0.4 dex if we take into account the N/O abundance ratio in their metallicity estimate.
 Physics , 2003, Abstract: Using spectroscopic data from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe (DEEP) Groth Strip survey (DGSS), we analyze the gas-phase oxygen abundances for 56 emission-line field galaxies in the redshift range 0.26
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/1480 Abstract: Based on the recent very deep near-infrared imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field with WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope, five groups published most probable samples of galaxies at z~8, selected by the so-called dropout method or photometric redshift; e.g., Y_105-dropouts (Y_105-J_125 > 0.8). These studies are highly useful for investigating both the early star formation history of galaxies and the sources of cosmic re-ionization. In order to better understand these issues, we carefully examine if there are low-$z$ interlopers in the samples of z~8 galaxy candidates. We focus on the strong emission-line galaxies at z~2 in this paper. Such galaxies may be selected as Y_105-dropouts since the [OIII] lambda 5007 emission line is redshifted into the J_125-band. We have found that the contamination from such low-$z$ interlopers is negligibly small. Therefore, all objects found by the five groups are free from this type of contamination. However, it remains difficult to extract real z~8 galaxies because all the sources are very faint and the different groups have found different candidates. With this in mind, we construct a robust sample of eight galaxies at z~8 from the objects found by the five groups: each of these eight objects has been selected by at least two groups. Using this sample, we discuss their UV continuum slope. We also discuss the escape fraction of ionizing photons adopting various metallicities. Our analysis suggests that massive stars forming in low-metallicity gas (Z~5 \times 10^-4 Z_sun) can be responsible for the completion of cosmic re-ionization if the escape fraction of ionizing continuum from galaxies is as large as 0.5, and this is consistent with the observed blue UV continua.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2012.21777.x Abstract: We investigate the properties (e.g. star formation rate, dust attentuation, stellar mass and metallicity) of a sample of infrared luminous galaxies at z \sim 1 via near-IR spectroscopy with Subaru-FMOS. Our sample consists of Herschel SPIRE and Spitzer MIPS selected sources in the COSMOS field with photometric redshifts in the range 0.7 < z-phot < 1.8, which have been targeted in 2 pointings (0.5 sq. deg.) with FMOS. We find a modest success rate for emission line detections, with candidate H{\alpha} emission lines detected for 57 of 168 SPIRE sources (34 per cent). By stacking the near-IR spectra we directly measure the mean Balmer decrement for the H{\alpha} and H{\beta} lines, finding a value of = 0.51\pm0.27 for = 10^12 Lsol sources at = 1.36. By comparing star formation rates estimated from the IR and from the dust uncorrected H{\alpha} line we find a strong relationship between dust attenuation and star formation rate. This relation is broadly consistent with that previously seen in star-forming galaxies at z ~ 0.1. Finally, we investigate the metallicity via the N2 ratio, finding that z ~ 1 IR-selected sources are indistinguishable from the local mass-metallicity relation. We also find a strong correlation between dust attentuation and metallicity, with the most metal-rich IR-sources experiencing the largest levels of dust attenuation.
 Physics , 2015, Abstract: We study the physical properties of a spectroscopic sample of 28 star-forming galaxies in a large filamentary structure in the COSMOS field at $z\sim$0.53, with spectroscopic data taken with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, and compare them with a control sample of 30 field galaxies. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of a large galaxy filament ($\sim$ 8 Mpc), along which five confirmed X-ray groups exist. We show that within the uncertainties, the ionization parameter, equivalent width (EW), EW versus specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relation, EW versus stellar mass relation, line-of-sight velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, and stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio are similar for filament and field star-forming galaxies. However, we show that on average, filament star-forming galaxies are more metal-enriched ($\sim$ 0.1$-$0.15 dex), possibly due to the inflow of the already enriched intrafilamentary gas into filament galaxies. Moreover, we show that electron densities are significantly lower (a factor of $\sim$17) in filament star-forming systems compared to those in the field, possibly because of a longer star-formation timescale for filament star-forming galaxies. Our results highlight the potential pre-processing role of galaxy filaments and intermediate-density environments on the evolution of galaxies, which has been highly underestimated.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/144 Abstract: We present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 slitless grism spectroscopy of 28 emission-line galaxies at z~2, in the GOODS-S region of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The high sensitivity of these grism observations, with 1-sigma detections of emission lines to f > 2.5x10^{-18} erg/s/cm^2, means that the galaxies in the sample are typically ~7 times less massive (median M_* = 10^{9.5} M_sun) than previously studied z~2 emission-line galaxies. Despite their lower mass, the galaxies have OIII/Hb ratios which are very similar to previously studied z~2 galaxies and much higher than the typical emission-line ratios of local galaxies. The WFC3 grism allows for unique studies of spatial gradients in emission lines, and we stack the two-dimensional spectra of the galaxies for this purpose. In the stacked data the OIII emission line is more spatially concentrated than the Hb emission line with 98.1 confidence. We additionally stack the X-ray data (all sources are individually undetected), and find that the average L(OIII)/L(0.5-10 keV) ratio is intermediate between typical z~0 obscured active galaxies and star-forming galaxies. Together the compactness of the stacked OIII spatial profile and the stacked X-ray data suggest that at least some of these low-mass, low-metallicity galaxies harbor weak active galactic nuclei.
 Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/760/1/6 Abstract: Using data from the mid-infrared to millimeter wavelengths for individual galaxies and for stacked ensembles at 0.5, which is proportional to the dust mass weighted luminosity (LIR/Mdust), and the primary parameter defining the shape of the SED, is equivalent to SFE/Z. For MS galaxies we measure this quantity, , showing that it does not depend significantly on either the stellar mass or the sSFR. This is explained as a simple consequence of the existing correlations between SFR-M*, M*-Z and Mgas-SFR. Instead, we show that (or LIR/Mdust) does evolve, with MS galaxies having harder radiation fields and thus warmer temperatures as redshift increases from z=0 to 2, a trend which can also be understood based on the redshift evolution of the M*-Z and SFR-M* relations. These results motivate the construction of a universal set of SED templates for MS galaxies which vary as a function of redshift with only one parameter, .
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/374636 Abstract: We investigate the color-magnitude distribution in the rich cluster AC 118 at z=0.31. The sample is selected by the photometric redshift technique, allowing to study a wide range of properties of stellar populations, and is complete in the K-band, allowing to study these properties up to a given galaxy mass. We use galaxy templates based on population synthesis models to translate the physical properties of the stellar populations - formation epoch, time-scale of star formation, and metallicity - into observed magnitudes and colors. In this way we show that a sharp luminosity-metallicity relation is inferred without any assumption on the galaxy formation scenario (either monolithic or hierarchical). Our data exclude significant differences in star formation histories along the color-magnitude relation, and therefore confirm a pure metallicity interpretation for its origin, with an early (z~5) formation epoch for the bulk of stellar populations. The dispersion in the color-magnitude diagram implies that fainter galaxies in our sample (K~18) ceased to form stars as late as z~0.5, in agreement with the picture that these galaxies were recently accreted into the cluster environment. The trend with redshift of the total stellar mass shows that half of the luminous mass in AC 118 was already formed at \$z~2, but also that 20% of the stars formed at z<1.
 Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv2150 Abstract: We present the first estimate of age, stellar metallicity and chemical abundance ratios, for an individual early-type galaxy at high-redshift (z = 1.426) in the COSMOS field. Our analysis is based on observations obtained with the X-Shooter instrument at the VLT, which cover the visual and near infrared spectrum at high (R >5000) spectral resolution. We measure the values of several spectral absorptions tracing chemical species, in particular Magnesium and Iron, besides determining the age-sensitive D4000 break. We compare the measured indices to stellar population models, finding good agreement. We find that our target is an old (t > 3 Gyr), high-metallicity ([Z/H] > 0.5) galaxy which formed its stars at z_{form} > 5 within a short time scale ~0.1 Gyr, as testified by the strong [\alpha/Fe] ratio ( > 0.4), and has passively evolved in the first > 3-4 Gyr of its life. We have verified that this result is robust against the choice and number of fitted spectral features, and stellar population model. The result of an old age and high-metallicity has important implications for galaxy formation and evolution confirming an early and rapid formation of the most massive galaxies in the Universe.
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