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HOPS 383: An Outbursting Class 0 Protostar in Orion  [PDF]
Emily J. Safron,William J. Fischer,S. Thomas Megeath,Elise Furlan,Amelia M. Stutz,Thomas Stanke,Nicolas Billot,Luisa M. Rebull,John J. Tobin,Babar Ali,Lori E. Allen,Joseph Booker,Dan M. Watson,T. L. Wilson
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/800/1/L5
Abstract: We report the dramatic mid-infrared brightening between 2004 and 2006 of HOPS 383, a deeply embedded protostar adjacent to NGC 1977 in Orion. By 2008, the source became a factor of 35 brighter at 24 microns with a brightness increase also apparent at 4.5 microns. The outburst is also detected in the submillimeter by comparing APEX/SABOCA to SCUBA data, and a scattered-light nebula appeared in NEWFIRM K_s imaging. The post-outburst spectral energy distribution indicates a Class 0 source with a dense envelope and a luminosity between 6 and 14 L_sun. Post-outburst time-series mid- and far-infrared photometry shows no long-term fading and variability at the 18% level between 2009 and 2012. HOPS 383 is the first outbursting Class 0 object discovered, pointing to the importance of episodic accretion at early stages in the star formation process. Its dramatic rise and lack of fading over a six-year period hint that it may be similar to FU Ori outbursts, although the luminosity appears to be significantly smaller than the canonical luminosities of such objects.
Modeling the Resolved Disk Around the Class 0 Protostar L1527  [PDF]
John J. Tobin,Lee Hartmann,Hsin-Fang Chiang,David J. Wilner,Leslie W. Looney,Laurent Loinard,Nuria Calvet,Paola D'Alessio
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/771/1/48
Abstract: We present high-resolution sub/millimeter interferometric imaging of the Class 0 protostar L1527 IRS (IRAS 04368+2557) at 870 micron and 3.4 mm from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA). We detect the signature of an edge-on disk surrounding the protostar with an observed diameter of 180 AU in the sub/millimeter images. The mass of the disk is estimated to be 0.007 M_sun, assuming optically thin, isothermal dust emission. The millimeter spectral index is observed to be quite shallow at all the spatial scales probed; alpha ~ 2, implying a dust opacity spectral index beta ~ 0. We model the emission from the disk and surrounding envelope using Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes, simultaneously fitting the sub/millimeter visibility amplitudes, sub/millimeter images, resolved L\arcmin\ image, spectral energy distribution, and mid-infrared spectrum. The best fitting model has a disk radius of R = 125 AU, is highly flared (H ~ R^1.3), has a radial density profile rho ~ R^-2.5, and has a mass of 0.0075 M_sun. The scale height at 100 AU is 48 AU, about a factor of two greater than vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. The resolved millimeter observations indicate that disks may grow rapidly throughout the Class 0 phase. The mass and radius of the young disk around L1527 is comparable to disks around pre-main sequence stars; however, the disk is considerably more vertically extended, possibly due to a combination of lower protostellar mass, infall onto the disk upper layers, and little settling of ~1 micron-sized dust grains.
Testing Magnetic Field Models for the Class 0 Protostar L1527  [PDF]
J. A. Davidson,Z. -Y. Li,C. L. H. Hull,R. L. Plambeck,W. Kwon,R. M. Crutcher,L. W. Looney,G. Novak,N. L. Chapman,B. C. Matthews,I. W. Stephens,J. J. Tobin,T. J. Jones
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/797/2/74
Abstract: For the Class 0 protostar, L1527, we compare 131 polarization vectors from SCUPOL/JCMT, SHARP/CSO and TADPOL/CARMA observations with the corresponding model polarization vectors of four ideal-MHD, non-turbulent, cloud core collapse models. These four models differ by their initial magnetic fields before collapse; two initially have aligned fields (strong and weak) and two initially have orthogonal fields (strong and weak) with respect to the rotation axis of the L1527 core. Only the initial weak orthogonal field model produces the observed circumstellar disk within L1527. This is a characteristic of nearly all ideal-MHD, non-turbulent, core collapse models. In this paper we test whether this weak orthogonal model also has the best agreement between its magnetic field structure and that inferred from the polarimetry observations of L1527. We found that this is not the case; based on the polarimetry observations the most favored model of the four is the weak aligned model. However, this model does not produce a circumstellar disk, so our result implies that a non-turbulent, ideal-MHD global collapse model probably does not represent the core collapse that has occurred in L1527. Our study also illustrates the importance of using polarization vectors covering a large area of a cloud core to determine the initial magnetic field orientation before collapse; the inner core magnetic field structure can be highly altered by a collapse and so measurements from this region alone can give unreliable estimates of the initial field configuration before collapse.
Deep Near Infrared Observations of the X-ray Emitting Class 0 Protostar Candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3  [PDF]
M. Tsujimoto,K. Koyama,Y. Tsuboi,G. Chartas,M. Goto,N. Kobayashi,H. Terada,A. T. Tokunaga
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1086/340559
Abstract: We obtained near infrared (NIR) imaging with the Subaru Telescope of the class 0 protostar candidates in the Orion Molecular Cloud-3, two of which were discovered to have X-ray emission by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We found strong evidence for the class~0 nature of the X-ray sources. First, our deep K-band image shows no emission brighter than 19.6 mag from both of these X-ray sources. Since class I protostars or class II T Tauri stars should be easily detected in the NIR with this sensitivity, the lack of K-band detection suggests that they are likely much more obscured than class I protostars. Second, our H2 v=1-0 S(1) image shows a bubble-like feature from one of the X-ray class 0 protostar candidates, which reinforces the idea that this is a class 0 protostar. We also discuss the nature of nine NIR sources found in our deep image based on their colors, spatial coincidence with millimeter cores, and the properties of their X-ray counterparts.
The Magnetic Field Morphology of the Class 0 Protostar L1157-mm  [PDF]
Ian W. Stephens,Leslie W. Looney,Woojin Kwon,Charles L. H. Hull,Richard L. Plambeck,Richard M. Crutcher,Nicholas Chapman,Giles Novak,Jacqueline Davidson,John E. Vaillancourt,Hiroko Shinnaga,Tristan Matthews
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/769/1/L15
Abstract: We present the first detection of polarization around the Class 0 low-mass protostar L1157-mm at two different wavelengths. We show polarimetric maps at large scales (10" resolution at 350 um) from the SHARC-II Polarimeter and at smaller scales (1.2"-4.5" at 1.3 mm) from the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). The observations are consistent with each other and show inferred magnetic field lines aligned with the outflow. The CARMA observations suggest a full hourglass magnetic field morphology centered about the core; this is only the second well-defined hourglass detected around a low-mass protostar to date. We apply two different methods to CARMA polarimetric observations to estimate the plane-of-sky magnetic field magnitude, finding values of 1.4 and 3.4 mG.
Pre- and Post-burst Radio Observations of the Class 0 Protostar HOPS 383 in Orion  [PDF]
Roberto Galván-Madrid,Luis F. Rodríguez,Hauyu B. Liu,Gráinne Costigan,Aina Palau,Luis A. Zapata,Laurent Loinard,.
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: There is increasing evidence that episodic accretion is a common phenomenon in Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Recently, the source HOPS 383 in Orion was reported to have a $\times 35$ mid-infrared -- and bolometric -- luminosity increase between 2004 and 2008, constituting the first clear example of a class 0 YSO (a protostar) with a large accretion burst. The usual assumption that in YSOs accretion and ejection follow each other in time needs to be tested. Radio jets at centimeter wavelengths are often the only way of tracing the jets from embedded protostars. We searched the Very Large Array archive for the available observations of the radio counterpart of HOPS 383. The data show that the radio flux of HOPS 383 varies only mildly from January 1998 to December 2014, staying at the level of $\sim 200$ to 300 $\mu$Jy in the X band ($\sim 9$ GHz), with a typical uncertainty of 10 to 20 $\mu$Jy in each measurement. We interpret the absence of a radio burst as suggesting that accretion and ejection enhancements do not follow each other in time, at least not within timescales shorter than a few years. Time monitoring of more objects and specific predictions from simulations are needed to clarify the details of the connection betwen accretion and jets/winds in YSOs.
The kinematics of NGC1333-IRAS2A - a true Class 0 protostar  [PDF]
C. Brinch,J. K. J\orgensen,M. R. Hogerheijde
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200810831
Abstract: Low-mass star formation is described by gravitational collapse of dense cores of gas and dust. At some point during the collapse, a disk is formed around the protostar and the disk will spin up and grow in size as the core contracts because of angular momentum conservation. The question is how early the disk formation process occurs. In this paper we aim to characterize the kinematical state of a deeply embedded, Class 0 young stellar object, NGC1333-IRAS2A, based on high angular resolution (< 1$''$ $\approx$ 200 AU) interferometric observations of HCN and H$^{13}$CN J = 4-3 from the Submillimeter Array, and test whether a circumstellar disk can be detected based on gas kinematic features. We adopt a physical model which has been shown to describe the object well and obtain a fit of a parameterized model of the velocity field, using a two-dimensional axis-symmetric radiation transfer code. The parameterization and fit to the high angular resolution data characterize the central dynamical mass and the ratio of infall velocity to rotation velocity. We find a large amount of infall and very little rotation on all scales. The central object has a relatively low mass of 0.25 M$_\odot$ . As an object with a low stellar mass compared to the envelope mass, we conclude that NGC1333-IRAS2A is consistent with the suggestion that, as a Class 0 object, it represents the earliest stages of star formation. The large amount of infall relative to rotation also suggests that this is a young object. We do however find the need of a central compact component on scales of a few hundred AU based on the continuum data, which suggests that disk formation happens shortly after the initial gravitational collapse. The data do not reveal a distinct velocity field for this 0.1 M$_\odot$ component.
Hot water in the inner 100 AU of the Class 0 protostar NGC1333 IRAS2A  [PDF]
Ruud Visser,Jes K. Jorgensen,Lars E. Kristensen,Ewine F. van Dishoeck,Edwin A. Bergin
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/769/1/19
Abstract: Evaporation of water ice above 100 K in the inner few 100 AU of low-mass embedded protostars (the so-called hot core) should produce quiescent water vapor abundances of ~10^-4 relative to H2. Observational evidence so far points at abundances of only a few 10^-6. However, these values are based on spherical models, which are known from interferometric studies to be inaccurate on the relevant spatial scales. Are hot cores really that much drier than expected, or are the low abundances an artifact of the inaccurate physical models? We present deep velocity-resolved Herschel-HIFI spectra of the 3(12)-3(03) lines of H2-16O and H2-18O (1097 GHz, Eup/k = 249 K) in the low-mass Class 0 protostar NGC1333 IRAS2A. A spherical radiative transfer model with a power-law density profile is unable to reproduce both the HIFI data and existing interferometric data on the H2-18O 3(13)-2(20) line (203 GHz, Eup/k = 204 K). Instead, the HIFI spectra likely show optically thick emission from a hot core with a radius of about 100 AU. The mass of the hot core is estimated from the C18O J=9-8 and 10-9 lines. We derive a lower limit to the hot water abundance of 2x10^-5, consistent with the theoretical predictions of ~10^-4. The revised HDO/H2O abundance ratio is 1x10^-3, an order of magnitude lower than previously estimated.
The immediate environment of the Class 0 protostar VLA1623, on scales of ~50-100 AU, observed at millimetre and centimetre wavelengths  [PDF]
D. Ward-Thompson,J. M. Kirk,J. S. Greaves,P. André
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18898.x
Abstract: We present high angular resolution observations, taken with the Very Large Array (VLA) and Multiple Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) radio telescopes, at 7mm and 4.4cm respectively, of the prototype Class 0 protostar VLA1623. At 7mm we detect two sources (VLA1623A & B) coincident with the two previously detected components at the centre of this system. The separation between the two is 1.2arcsec, or ~170AU at an assumed distance of 139pc. The upper limit to the size of the source coincident with each component of VLA1623 is ~0.7arcsec, in agreement with previous findings. This corresponds to a diameter of ~100AU at an assumed distance of 139pc. Both components show the same general trend in their broadband continuum spectra, of a steeper dust continuum spectrum shortward of 7mm and a flatter spectrum longward of this. We estimate an upper limit to the VLA1623A disc mass of <0.13Msol and an upper limit to its radius of ~50AU. The longer wavelength data have a spectral index of \alpha~0.6+/-0.3. This is too steep to be explained by optically thin free-free emission. It is most likely due to optically thick free-free emission. Alternatively, we speculate that it might be due to the formation of larger grains or planetesimals in the circumstellar disc. We estimate the mass of VLA1623B to be <0.15M$sol. We can place a lower limit to its size of ~30x7 AU, and an upper limit to its diameter of ~100AU. The longer wavelength data of VLA1623B also have a spectral index of \alpha~0.6+/-0.3. The nature of VLA1623B remains a matter of debate. It could be a binary companion to the protostar, or a knot in the radio jet from VLA1623A.
First results from the CALYPSO IRAM-PdBI survey. II. Resolving the hot corino in the Class 0 protostar NGC 1333-IRAS2A  [PDF]
A. J. Maury,A. Belloche,Ph. André,S. Maret,F. Gueth,C. Codella,S. Cabrit,L. Testi,S. Bontemps
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201323033
Abstract: We investigate the origin of complex organic molecules (COMs) in the gas phase around the low-mass Class~0 protostar NGC1333-IRAS2A, to determine if the COM emission lines trace an embedded disk, shocks from the protostellar jet, or the warm inner parts of the protostellar envelope. In the framework of the CALYPSO (Continuum And Lines in Young ProtoStellar Objects) IRAM Plateau de Bure survey, we obtained large bandwidth spectra at sub-arcsecond resolution towards NGC 1333-IRAS2A. We identify the emission lines towards the central protostar and perform Gaussian fits to constrain the size of the emitting region for each of these lines, tracing various physical conditions and scales. The emission of numerous COMs such as methanol, ethylene glycol, and methyl formate is spatially resolved by our observations. This allows us to measure, for the first time, the size of the COM emission inside the protostellar envelope, finding that it originates from a region of radius 40-100 AU, centered on the NGC 1333-IRAS2A protostellar object. Our analysis shows no preferential elongation of the COM emission along the jet axis, and therefore does not support the hypothesis that COM emission arises from shocked envelope material at the base of the jet. Down to similar sizes, the dust continuum emission is well reproduced with a single envelope model, and therefore does not favor the hypothesis that COM emission arises from the thermal sublimation of grains embedded in a circumstellar disk. Finally, the typical scale $\sim$60 AU observed for COM emission is consistent with the size of the inner envelope where $T_{\rm{dust}} > 100$ K is expected. Our data therefore strongly suggest that the COM emission traces the hot corino in IRAS2A, i.e., the warm inner envelope material where the icy mantles of dust grains evaporate because they are passively heated by the central protostellar object.
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