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 Physics , 2015, Abstract: There is increasing evidence that episodic accretion is a common phenomenon in Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). Recently, the source HOPS 383 in Orion was reported to have a $\times 35$ mid-infrared -- and bolometric -- luminosity increase between 2004 and 2008, constituting the first clear example of a class 0 YSO (a protostar) with a large accretion burst. The usual assumption that in YSOs accretion and ejection follow each other in time needs to be tested. Radio jets at centimeter wavelengths are often the only way of tracing the jets from embedded protostars. We searched the Very Large Array archive for the available observations of the radio counterpart of HOPS 383. The data show that the radio flux of HOPS 383 varies only mildly from January 1998 to December 2014, staying at the level of $\sim 200$ to 300 $\mu$Jy in the X band ($\sim 9$ GHz), with a typical uncertainty of 10 to 20 $\mu$Jy in each measurement. We interpret the absence of a radio burst as suggesting that accretion and ejection enhancements do not follow each other in time, at least not within timescales shorter than a few years. Time monitoring of more objects and specific predictions from simulations are needed to clarify the details of the connection betwen accretion and jets/winds in YSOs.
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200810831 Abstract: Low-mass star formation is described by gravitational collapse of dense cores of gas and dust. At some point during the collapse, a disk is formed around the protostar and the disk will spin up and grow in size as the core contracts because of angular momentum conservation. The question is how early the disk formation process occurs. In this paper we aim to characterize the kinematical state of a deeply embedded, Class 0 young stellar object, NGC1333-IRAS2A, based on high angular resolution (< 1$''$ $\approx$ 200 AU) interferometric observations of HCN and H$^{13}$CN J = 4-3 from the Submillimeter Array, and test whether a circumstellar disk can be detected based on gas kinematic features. We adopt a physical model which has been shown to describe the object well and obtain a fit of a parameterized model of the velocity field, using a two-dimensional axis-symmetric radiation transfer code. The parameterization and fit to the high angular resolution data characterize the central dynamical mass and the ratio of infall velocity to rotation velocity. We find a large amount of infall and very little rotation on all scales. The central object has a relatively low mass of 0.25 M$_\odot$ . As an object with a low stellar mass compared to the envelope mass, we conclude that NGC1333-IRAS2A is consistent with the suggestion that, as a Class 0 object, it represents the earliest stages of star formation. The large amount of infall relative to rotation also suggests that this is a young object. We do however find the need of a central compact component on scales of a few hundred AU based on the continuum data, which suggests that disk formation happens shortly after the initial gravitational collapse. The data do not reveal a distinct velocity field for this 0.1 M$_\odot$ component.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2011.18898.x Abstract: We present high angular resolution observations, taken with the Very Large Array (VLA) and Multiple Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) radio telescopes, at 7mm and 4.4cm respectively, of the prototype Class 0 protostar VLA1623. At 7mm we detect two sources (VLA1623A & B) coincident with the two previously detected components at the centre of this system. The separation between the two is 1.2arcsec, or ~170AU at an assumed distance of 139pc. The upper limit to the size of the source coincident with each component of VLA1623 is ~0.7arcsec, in agreement with previous findings. This corresponds to a diameter of ~100AU at an assumed distance of 139pc. Both components show the same general trend in their broadband continuum spectra, of a steeper dust continuum spectrum shortward of 7mm and a flatter spectrum longward of this. We estimate an upper limit to the VLA1623A disc mass of <0.13Msol and an upper limit to its radius of ~50AU. The longer wavelength data have a spectral index of \alpha~0.6+/-0.3. This is too steep to be explained by optically thin free-free emission. It is most likely due to optically thick free-free emission. Alternatively, we speculate that it might be due to the formation of larger grains or planetesimals in the circumstellar disc. We estimate the mass of VLA1623B to be <0.15M$sol. We can place a lower limit to its size of ~30x7 AU, and an upper limit to its diameter of ~100AU. The longer wavelength data of VLA1623B also have a spectral index of \alpha~0.6+/-0.3. The nature of VLA1623B remains a matter of debate. It could be a binary companion to the protostar, or a knot in the radio jet from VLA1623A.  Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201323033 Abstract: We investigate the origin of complex organic molecules (COMs) in the gas phase around the low-mass Class~0 protostar NGC1333-IRAS2A, to determine if the COM emission lines trace an embedded disk, shocks from the protostellar jet, or the warm inner parts of the protostellar envelope. In the framework of the CALYPSO (Continuum And Lines in Young ProtoStellar Objects) IRAM Plateau de Bure survey, we obtained large bandwidth spectra at sub-arcsecond resolution towards NGC 1333-IRAS2A. We identify the emission lines towards the central protostar and perform Gaussian fits to constrain the size of the emitting region for each of these lines, tracing various physical conditions and scales. The emission of numerous COMs such as methanol, ethylene glycol, and methyl formate is spatially resolved by our observations. This allows us to measure, for the first time, the size of the COM emission inside the protostellar envelope, finding that it originates from a region of radius 40-100 AU, centered on the NGC 1333-IRAS2A protostellar object. Our analysis shows no preferential elongation of the COM emission along the jet axis, and therefore does not support the hypothesis that COM emission arises from shocked envelope material at the base of the jet. Down to similar sizes, the dust continuum emission is well reproduced with a single envelope model, and therefore does not favor the hypothesis that COM emission arises from the thermal sublimation of grains embedded in a circumstellar disk. Finally, the typical scale$\sim$60 AU observed for COM emission is consistent with the size of the inner envelope where$T_{\rm{dust}} > 100\$ K is expected. Our data therefore strongly suggest that the COM emission traces the hot corino in IRAS2A, i.e., the warm inner envelope material where the icy mantles of dust grains evaporate because they are passively heated by the central protostellar object.