Abstract:
Experiments performed within the last year have demonstrated Rydberg state mediated quantum gates and deterministic entanglement between pairs of trapped neutral atoms. These experiments validate ten year old proposals for Rydberg mediated quantum logic, but are only the beginning of ongoing efforts to improve the fidelity of the results obtained and scale the experiments to larger numbers of qubits. We present here a summary of the results to date, along with a critical evaluation of the prospects for higher fidelity Rydberg gates.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme to achieve quantum computation with neutral atoms whose interactions are catalyzed by single photons. Conditional quantum gates, including an $N$-atom Toffoli gate and nonlocal gates on remote atoms, are obtained through cavity-assisted photon scattering in a manner that is robust to random variation in the atom-photon coupling rate and which does not require localization in the Lamb-Dicke regime. The dominant noise in our scheme is automatically detected for each gate operation, leading to signalled errors which do not preclude efficient quantum computation even if the error probability is close to the unity.

Abstract:
We theoretically study specific schemes for performing a fundamental two-qubit quantum gate via controlled atomic collisions by switching microscopic potentials. In particular we calculate the fidelity of a gate operation for a configuration where a potential barrier between two atoms is instantaneously removed and restored after a certain time. Possible implementations could be based on microtraps created by magnetic and electric fields, or potentials induced by laser light.

Abstract:
We propose a scheme for quantum logic with neutral atoms stored in an array of holographic dipole traps where the positions of the atoms can be rearranged by using holographic optical tweezers. In particular, this allows for the transport of two atoms to the same well where an external control field is used to perform gate operations via the molecular interaction between the atoms. We show that optimal control techniques allow for the fast implementation of the gates with high fidelity.

Abstract:
We propose an all-geometric implementation of quantum computation using neutral atoms in cavity QED. We show how to perform generic single- and two-qubit gates, the latter by encoding a two-atom state onto a single, many-level atom. We compare different strategies to overcome limitations due to cavity imperfections.

Abstract:
We present a proposal for quantum information processing with neutral atoms trapped in optical lattices as qubits. Initialization and coherent control of single qubits can be achieved with standard laser cooling and spectroscopic techniques. We consider entangling two-qubit logic gates based on optically induced dipole-dipole interactions, calculating a figure-of-merit for various protocols. Massive parallelism intrinsic to the lattice geometry makes this an intriguing system for scalable, fault-tolerant quantum computation.

Abstract:
We study the deterministic entanglement of a pair of neutral atoms trapped in an optical lattice by coupling to excited-state molecular hyperfine potentials. Information can be encoded in the ground-state hyperfine levels and processed by bringing atoms together pair-wise to perform quantum logical operations through induced electric dipole-dipole interactions. The possibility of executing both diagonal and exchange type entangling gates is demonstrated for two three-level atoms and a figure of merit is derived for the fidelity of entanglement. The fidelity for executing a CPHASE gate is calculated for two 87Rb atoms, including hyperfine structure and finite atomic localization. The main source of decoherence is spontaneous emission, which can be minimized for interaction times fast compared to the scattering rate and for sufficiently separated atomic wavepackets. Additionally, coherent couplings to states outside the logical basis can be constrained by the state dependent trapping potential.

Abstract:
We develop a method to entangle neutral atoms using cold controlled collisions. We analyze this method in two particular set-ups: optical lattices and magnetic micro-traps. Both offer the possibility of performing certain multi-particle operations in parallel. Using this fact, we show how to implement efficient quantum error correction and schemes for fault-tolerant computing.

Abstract:
To advance quantum information science a constant pursuit is the search for physical systems that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. While these interactions allow fast gates, atoms subject to these interactions must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring significant wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects yet present a new challenge: To distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, via a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. While ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and detected entanglement with macroscopic observables, we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements; this new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially-separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via ultracold spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunneling is used to combine and separate atoms. Our toolset provides a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.

Abstract:
We show how realistic cavity-assisted interaction between neutral atoms and coherent optical pulses, and measurement techniques, combined with optical transportation of atoms, allow for a universal set of quantum gates acting on decoherence-free subspace (DFS) in deterministic way. The logical qubits are immunized to the dominant source of decoherece--dephasing; while, the influences of additional errors are shown by numerical simulations. We analyze the performance and stability of all required operations and emphasize that all techniques we use are feasible with current experimental technology.