Abstract:
We report a local hidden-variable model which reproduces quantum predictions for the two-photon interferometric experiment proposed by Franson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2205 (1989)]. The model works for the ideal case of full visibility and perfect detection efficiency. This result changes the interpretation of a series of experiments performed in the current decade.

Abstract:
Because of the fundamental importance of Bell's theorem, a loophole-free demonstration of a violation of local realism (LR) is highly desirable. Here, we study violations of LR involving photon pairs. We quantify the experimental evidence against LR by using measures of statistical strength related to the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, as suggested by van Dam et al. [W. van Dam, R. Gill and P. Grunwald, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory. 51, 2812 (2005)]. Specifically, we analyze a test of LR with entangled states created from two independent polarized photons passing through a polarizing beam splitter. We numerically study the detection efficiency required to achieve a specified statistical strength for the rejection of LR depending on whether photon counters or detectors are used. Based on our results, we find that a test of LR free of the detection loophole requires photon counters with efficiencies of at least 89.71%, or photon detectors with efficiencies of at least 91.11%. For comparison, we also perform this analysis with ideal unbalanced Bell states, which are known to allow rejection of LR with detector efficiencies above 2/3.

Abstract:
It is shown that the model introduced by Cabello et al. to criticize the Franson experiment suffers from the same weakness as the previous model introduced by Aerts et al. with the same purpose. It is also shown why we can assume with confidence that the Franson experiment does violate local realism.

Abstract:
It is currently widely accepted, as a result of Bell's theorem and related experiments, that quantum mechanics is inconsistent with local realism and there is the so called quantum non-locality. We show that such a claim can be justified only in a simplified approach to quantum mechanics when one neglects the fundamental fact that there exist space and time. Mathematical definitions of local realism in the sense of Bell and in the sense of Einstein are given. We demonstrate that if we include into the quantum mechanical formalism the space-time structure in the standard way then quantum mechanics might be consistent with Einstein's local realism. It shows that loopholes are unavoidable in experiments aimed to establish a violation of Bell`s inequalities. We show how the space-time structure can be considered from the contextual point of view. A mathematical framework for the contextual approach is outlined.

Abstract:
It is argued that local realism is a fundamental principle, which might be rejected only if experiments clearly show that it is untenable. A critical review is presented of the derivations of Bell's inequalities and the performed experiments, with the conclusion that no valid, loophole-free, test exists of local realism vs. quantum mechanics. It is pointed out that, without any essential modification, quantum mechanics might be compatible with local realism. This suggests that the principle may be respected by nature.

Abstract:
We develop and exploit a source of two-photon four-dimensional entanglement to report the first two-particle all-versus-nothing test of local realism with a linear optics setup, but without resorting to a non-contextuality ssumption. Our experimental results are in well agreement with quantum mechanics while in extreme contradiction with local realism. Potential applications of our experiment are briefly discussed.

Abstract:
The Franson interferometer, proposed in 1989 [J. D. Franson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62:2205-2208 (1989)], beautifully shows the counter-intuitive nature of light. The quantum description predicts sinusoidal interference for specific outcomes of the experiment, and these predictions can be verified in experiment. In the spirit of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen it is possible to ask if the quantum-mechanical description (of this setup) can be considered complete. This question will be answered in detail in this paper, by delineating the quite complicated relation between energy-time entanglement experiments and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) elements of reality. The mentioned sinusoidal interference pattern is the same as that giving a violation in the usual Bell experiment. Even so, depending on the precise requirements made on the local realist model, this can imply a) no violation, b) smaller violation than usual, or c) full violation of the appropriate statistical bound. Alternatives include a) using only the measurement outcomes as EPR elements of reality, b) using the emission time as EPR element of reality, c) using path realism, or d) using a modified setup. This paper discusses the nature of these alternatives and how to choose between them. The subtleties of this discussion needs to be taken into account when designing and setting up experiments intended to test local realism. Furthermore, these considerations are also important for quantum communication, for example in Bell-inequality-based quantum cryptography, especially when aiming for device independence.

Abstract:
We show that the possibility of distinguishing between single and two photon detection events, usually not met in the actual experiments, is not a necessary requirement for the proof that the experiments of Alley and Shih [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921 (1988)], and Ou and Mandel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 50 (1988)], are modulo fair sampling assumption, valid tests of local realism. We also give the critical parameters for the experiments to be unconditional tests of local realism, and show that some other interesting phenomena (involving bosonic type particle indistinguishability) can be observed during such tests.

Abstract:
We investigate the violation factor of the original Bell-Mermin inequality. Until now, we have used an assumption that the results of measurement are . In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows: and . The quantum predictions by n-partite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state violate the Bell-Mermin inequality by an amount that grows exponentially with n. Recently, a new measurement theory is proposed [K. Nagata and T. Nakamura, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 49, 162 (2010)]. The values of measurement outcome are . Here we use the new measurement theory. We consider a multipartite GHZ state. We use the original Bell-Mermin inequality. It turns out that the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied irrespective of the number of particles. In this case, the maximum violation factor is as follows: and . Thus the original Bell-Mermin inequality is satisfied by the new measurement theory. We propose the following conjecture: All the two-orthogonal-settings experimental correlation functions admit local realistic theories irrespective of a state if we use the new measurement theory.

Abstract:
We analyze some aspects of recently performed Franson-type experiments with entangled photon pairs aimed to test Bell's inequalities. We point out that quantum theory leads to the coincidence rate between detectors which includes in fact a dependence on the distance. We study this dependence and obtain that for large distances the correlation function vanishes. Therefore with taking into account the space parts of wave functions of photons for large distances quantum mechanical predictions are consistent with Bell's inequalities. We propose an experimental study of space dependence of correlation functions in Bell-type experiments.