Abstract:
We derive the universal collapse law of degree 1 equivariant wave maps (solutions of the sigma-model) from the 2+1 Minkowski space-time,to the 2-sphere. To this end we introduce a nonlinear transformation from original variables to blowup ones. Our formal derivations are confirmed by numerical simulations.

Abstract:
Previous studies of the semilinear wave equation in Minkowski space have shown a type of critical behavior in which large initial data collapse to singularity formation due to nonlinearities while small initial data does not. Numerical solutions in spherically symmetric Anti-de Sitter (AdS) are presented here which suggest that, in contrast, even small initial data collapse eventually. Such behavior appears analogous to the recent result of Ref. [1] that found that even weak, scalar initial data collapse gravitationally to black hole formation via a weakly turbulent instability. Furthermore, the imposition of a reflecting boundary condition in the bulk introduces a cut-off, below which initial data fails to collapse. This threshold appears to arise because of the dispersion introduced by the boundary condition.

Abstract:
Observations of seismic surface waves provide the most important constraint on the elastic properties of the Earth s lithosphere and upper mantle. Two databases of fundamental mode surface wave dispersion were recently compiled and published by groups at Harvard (Ekstr m et al., 1997) and Utrecht/Oxford (Trampert and Woodhouse, 1995, 2001), and later employed in 3-d global tomographic studies. Although based on similar sets of seismic records, the two databases show some significant discrepancies. We derive phase velocity maps from both, and compare them to quantify the discrepancies and assess the relative quality of the data; in this endeavour, we take careful account of the effects of regularization and parametrization. At short periods, where Love waves are mostly sensitive to crustal structure and thickness, we refer our comparison to a map of the Earth s crust derived from independent data. On the assumption that second-order effects like seismic anisotropy and scattering can be neglected, we find the measurements of Ekstr m et al. (1997) of better quality; those of Trampert and Woodhouse (2001) result in phase velocity maps of much higher spatial frequency and, accordingly, more difficult to explain and justify geophysically. The discrepancy is partly explained by the more conservative a priori selection of data implemented by Ekstr m et al. (1997). Nevertheless, it becomes more significant with decreasing period, which indicates that it could also be traced to the different measurement techniques employed by the authors.

Abstract:
Using complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formulation, a new kind of non-linear equations is proposed that have almost classical structure and extend the Schroedinger equation to describe the collapse of the wave function as a finite-time process. Experimental bounds on the collapse time are reported (of order 0.1 ms to 0.1 ps) and its convenient dimensionless measure is introduced. This parameter helps to identify the areas where sensitive probes of the possible collapse dynamics can be done. Examples are experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates, ultracold neutrons or ultrafast optics.

Abstract:
In this note we concern with the wave maps from the Lorentzian manifold with the periodic in time metric into the Riemannian manifold, which belongs to the one-parameter family of Riemannian manifolds. That family contains as a special case the Poincare upper half-plane model. Our interest to such maps is motivated with some particular type of the Robertson-Walker spacetime arising in the cosmology. We show that small periodic in time perturbation of the Minkowski metric generates parametric resonance phenomenon. We prove that, the global in time solvability in the neighborhood of constant solutions is not a stable property of the wave maps.

Abstract:
We consider the exterior Cauchy-Dirichlet problem for equivariant wave maps from 3+1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime into the three-sphere. Using mixed analytical and numerical methods we show that, for a given topological degree of the map, all solutions starting from smooth finite energy initial data converge to the unique static solution (harmonic map). The asymptotics of this relaxation process is described in detail. We hope that our model will provide an attractive mathematical setting for gaining insight into dissipation-by-dispersion phenomena, in particular the soliton resolution conjecture.

Abstract:
Wave maps (i.e. nonlinear sigma models) with torsion are considered in 2+1 dimensions. Global existence of smooth solutions to the Cauchy problem is proven for certain reductions under a translation group action: invariant wave maps into general targets, and equivariant wave maps into Lie group targets. In the case of Lie group targets (i.e. chiral models), a geometrical characterization of invariant and equivariant wave maps is given in terms of a formulation using frames.

Abstract:
Quantum measurement problem is still unconsensus since it has existed many years and inspired a large of literature in physics and philosophy. We show it can be subsumed into the quantum theory if we extend the Feynman path integral by considering the relativistic effect of Feynman paths. According to this extended theory, we deduce not only the Klein-Gordon equation, but also the wave-function-collapse equation. It is showing that the stochastic and instantaneous collapse of the quantum measurement is due to the "potential noise" of the apparatus or environment and "inner correlation" of wave function respectively. Therefore, the definite-status of the macroscopic matter is due to itself and this does not disobey the quantum mechanics. This work will give a new recognition for the measurement problem.

Abstract:
This brief article reviews stochastic processes as relevant to dynamical models of wave-function collapse, and is supplemental material for the review article arXiv:1204.4325

Abstract:
We give a twist to the assumption - discussed in various earlier works - that gravity plays a role in the collapse of the wave function. This time we discuss the contrary assumption that the collapse of the wave function plays a role in the emergence of the gravitational field. We start from the mathematical framework of a particular Newtonian gravitational collapse theory proposed by the author longtime ago, and we reconciliate it with the classical equivalence principle.