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 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(96)00412-1 Abstract: We report on investigations concerning the production of large transverse momentum jets in DIS diffractive dissociation. These processes constitute a new class of events that allow for a clean test of perturbative QCD and of the hard (perturbative) pomeron picture. The measurement of the corresponding cross sections might possibly serve to determine the gluon density of the proton.
 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(96)81071-9 Abstract: We investigate the azimuthal distribution of quark-antiquark jets in DIS diffractive dissociation with large transverse momentum. In this kinematical region the matrix element is expressed in terms of the gluon structure function. For the transverse part of the cross section we find a $\cos(2 \phi)$-distribution with the maximum at $\phi = \pm \pi/2$, i.e.\ the jets prefer a direction perpendicular to the electron plane. This is in contrast to boson gluon fusion where the $q\bar{q}$ jet cross section for transversely polarized bosons peaks at $\phi=0$ and $\phi=\pi$. We discuss the origin of this striking difference and present numerical results relevant for the diffractive dissociation at HERA.
 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.56.184 Abstract: We study the impact of the "intrinsic" hadron transverse momentum on the pre-asymptotic behavior of the diffractive electroproduction of longitudinally polarized $\rho$-meson. Surprisingly, we find the onset of the asymptotic regime in this problem to be rather low, Q^2 ~ 10 GeV^2 where power corrections due to the transverse momentum do not exceed 20 % in the amplitude. This drastically contrasts with exclusive amplitudes where the asymptotics starts at much higher Q^2 = 50 - 100 GeV^2. The sources of such unexpected behavior are traced back to some general (the quark-hadron duality) as well as more silent (properties of higher dimensional vacuum condensates) features of QCD.
 ZEUS Collaboration Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1007/BF01571283 Abstract: Inclusive transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in photoproduction events in the laboratory pseudorapidity range $-1.2<\eta<1.4$ have been measured up to $p_{T}=8\GeV$ using the ZEUS detector. Diffractive and non--diffractive reactions have been selected with an average $\gamma p$ centre of mass (c.m.) energy of $\langle W \rangle = 180\GeV$. For diffractive reactions, the $p_{T}$ spectra of the photon dissociation events have been measured in two intervals of the dissociated photon mass with mean values $\langle M_{X} \rangle = 5$ GeV and $10$ GeV. The inclusive transverse momentum spectra fall exponentially in the low $p_{T}$ region. The non--diffractive data show a pronounced high $p_{T}$ tail departing from the exponential shape. The $p_{T}$ distributions are compared to lower energy photoproduction data and to hadron--hadron collisions at a similar c.m. energy. The data are also compared to the results of a next--to--leading order QCD calculation.
 Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.60.117504 Abstract: Direct photon production at large transverse momentum in the coherent diffractive processes at hadron colliders is calculated in the two-gluon exchange model. We find that the amplitude for the production process is related to the differential off-diagonal gluon distribution function in the proton. We estimate the production rate at the Fermilab Tevatron by approximately using the usual gluon distribution function. Because of the clean signature, this process can be used to detailed study the small-x physics, and the coherent diffractive processes at hadron colliders.
 Alessandro Bacchetta Physics , 2011, Abstract: I present a short review of models for transverse-momentum distributions and transversity, with a particular attention on general features common to many models. I compare some model results with experimental extractions. I discuss the existence of relations between different functions, their limits of validity, their possible use.
 High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2008, Abstract: Using a three stage model of hadron formation we calculate the change of the transverse momentum distribution of hadrons produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) on nuclei. In the first stage after its interaction with the virtual photon, the struck quark propagates quasi free in the nuclear environment undergoing multiple collisions with nucleons. During this stage it can acquire transverse momentum. In the second stage a prehadron is formed which has a very small elastic cross section with the nucleons. In the third stage the prehadron turns into a hadron. For HERMES energies, prehadron elastic scatterings contribute little to $p_\perp$-broadening. The acquired extra $\Delta p_\perp^2$ of hadrons can therefore be deduced entirely from the first stage of quasi free quark propagation with quark-nucleon collisions. We use this model to describe $\pi$-production on Ne, Kr, Xe and compare with the most recent HERMES preliminary data.
 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(96)00960-4 Abstract: We have calculated the single jet inclusive cross section as measured at Fermilab in next-to-leading order QCD using recent parton distributions of the CTEQ collaboration. We studied the scheme dependence of the jet cross section by employing the $\overline{\mbox{MS}}$ and DIS factorization schemes consistently. For $E_T > 200$ GeV, we find that the cross section in the DIS scheme is larger than in the $\overline{\mbox{MS}}$ scheme yielding a satisfactory description of the CDF data over the whole $E_T$ range in the DIS scheme.
 Physics , 1996, Abstract: A review of theoretical models of diffractive structure functions in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) is presented with a view to highlighting distinctive features, that may be distinguished experimentally. In particular, predictions for the behaviour of the diffractive structure functions $F_2^D, F_L^D, F_2^{D(\mbox{\small{charm}})}$ are presented. The measurement of these functions at both small and high values of the variable $\beta$ and their evolution with $Q^2$ is expected to reveal crucial information concerning the underlying dynamics.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.83.065202 Abstract: We compute cross sections for incoherent diffractive J/Psi production in lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering. The cross section is proportional to A in the dilute limit and to A^(1/3) in the black disc limit, with a large nuclear suppression due to saturation effects. The t-dependence of the cross section, if it can be measured accurately enough, is sensitive to the impact parameter profile of the gluons in the nucleus and their fluctuations, a quantity that determines the initial conditions of a relativistic heavy ion collision. The nuclear suppression in incoherent diffraction shows how the transverse spatial distribution of the gluons in the nucleus gradually becomes smoother at high energy. Since the values of the momentum transfer |t| involved are relatively large, this process should be easier to measure in future nuclear DIS experiments than coherent diffraction.
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