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 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1086/303763 Abstract: We use high resolution N-body/gasdynamical simulations to investigate the effects of a photoionizing UV background on the assembly of disk galaxies in hierarchically clustering universes. We focus on the mass and rotational properties of gas that can cool to form centrifugally supported disks in dark matter halos of different mass. Photoheating can significantly reduce the amount of gas that can cool in galactic halos. Depending on the strength of the UV background field, the amount of cooled gas can be reduced by up to $50\%$ in systems with circular speeds in the range $80$-$200$ \kms. The magnitude of the effect, however, is not enough to solve the overcooling'' problem that plagues hierarchical models of galaxy formation if the UV background is chosen to be consistent with estimates based on recent observations of QSO absorption systems. Photoionization has little effect on the collapse of gas at high redshift and affects preferentially gas that is accreted at late times. Since disks form inside-out, accreting higher angular momentum gas at later times, disks formed in the presence of a UV background have spins that are even smaller than those formed in simulations that do not include the effects of photoionization. This exacerbates the angular momentum problem that afflicts hierarchical models of disk formation. We conclude that photoionization cannot provide the heating mechanism required to reconcile hierarchically clustering models with observations. Energy feedback and enrichment processes from the formation and evolution of stars must therefore be indispensable ingredients for any successful model of the formation of disk galaxies.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1797 Abstract: From an analysis of almost 2000 GALEX images of galaxies with morphological types ranging from E to Sab, we have found a significant subset (28%) that show UV emission outside $R_{25}$. We have obtained H$\alpha$ imaging of ten such galaxies, and find that their star formation rates are similar in the UV and in H$\alpha$, with values ranging from a few tenths to a few $M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. Probably because our sample selection is biased towards star-forming galaxies, these rates are comparable to those found in disk galaxies, although the star formation rates of the elliptical galaxies in our sample are well below $1\,M_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. We confirm that the extended UV emission in our sample is caused by massive star formation in outer spiral arms and/or outer (pseudo) rings, rather than by alternative mechanisms such as the UV upturn.
 Physics , 1999, Abstract: Nearby (D < 100 Mpc) luminous blue starburst galaxies frequently show morphological evidence for recent involvement in mild collisions, or minor mergers where the disk survives. As a consequence UV-bright starbursts are preferentially seen in near face-on galaxies, and the postburst systems may become star-forming late-type galaxies. If this starburst evolutionary channel is important at moderate redshifts, then descendants of the faint blue galaxies could be the very common Sm-Sd field galaxies.
 Alberto Buzzoni Physics , 1998, Abstract: The problem of UV properties of primeval galaxies is briefly assessed from the theoretical point of view discussing its impact on the definition of the cosmological model.
 Physics , 2009, Abstract: We present GALEX ultraviolet images from a survey of strongly interacting galaxy pairs, and compare with images at other wavelengths. The tidal features are particularly striking in the UV images. Numerous knots of star formation are visible throughout the disks and the tails and bridges. We also identify a possible Taffy' galaxy in our sample, which may have been produced by a head-on collision between two disk galaxies.
 Alister W. Graham Physics , 2013, Abstract: A brief overview of several recent disk galaxy scaling relations is presented, along with some historical background. In particular, after introducing the (basic) radial light profiles of disk galaxies, I explain several important structural' scaling relations and review the latest bulge-(black hole mass) diagrams. I go on to present the typical bulge-to-disk flux ratios of disk galaxies and suggest the use of a grid of bulge-to-disk flux ratio versus disk Hubble type - based on the nature of the spiral arms - to complement the Hubble-Jeans sequence. I then briefly mention pure disk galaxies before cautioning on difficulties with identifying pseudo-bulges built from secular evolution. Finally, I conclude by discussing a likely connection between modern day bulges in disk galaxies and high-redshift (z ~ 2+/-0.5) compact galaxies which may have since acquired a disk via cold flows and quiescent accretion.
 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/745/1/34 Abstract: We have identified 15 XUV disks in a largely field sample of 38 E/S0 galaxies with stellar masses primarily below ~4 x 10^10 M_sun and comparable numbers on the red and blue sequences. We use a new purely quantitative XUV disk definition requiring UV extension relative to a UV-defined star formation threshold radius. The 39(+-9)% XUV-disk frequency for these E/S0s is roughly twice the ~20% reported for late types, possibly indicating that XUV disks are associated with galaxies experiencing weak or inefficient star formation. Consistent with this interpretation, the XUV disks in our sample do not correlate with enhanced outer-disk star formation as traced by blue optical outer-disk colors. However, UV-Bright (UV-B) disk galaxies with blue UV colors outside their optical 50% light radii do display enhanced optical outer-disk star formation as well as enhanced atomic gas content. UV-B disks occur with a 42(+9/-8)% frequency, and the combined XUV/UV-B frequency is 61(+-9)%. For both types, UV colors typically imply <1 Gyr ages. XUV disks occur over the full sample mass range and on both sequences, suggesting an association with galaxy interactions or another general evolutionary process. In contrast, UV-B disks favor the blue sequence and may also prefer low masses, perhaps reflecting the onset of cold-mode accretion or another mass-dependent evolutionary process. Virtually all blue E/S0s in the gas-rich regime below stellar mass M_t ~ 5 x 10^9 M_sun (the "gas-richness threshold mass") display UV-B disks. [abridged]
 Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1038/nature08215 Abstract: Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most dark matter dominated systems in the nearby Universe and their origin is one of the outstanding puzzles of how galaxies form. Dwarf spheroidals are poor in gas and stars, making them unusually faint, and those known as ultra-faint dwarfs have by far the lowest measured stellar content of any galaxy. Previous theories require that dwarf spheroidals orbit near giant galaxies like the Milky Way, but some dwarfs have been observed in the outskirts of the Local Group. Here we report simulations of encounters between dwarf disk galaxies and somewhat larger objects. We find that the encounters excite a process, which we term resonant stripping'', that can transform them into dwarf spheroidals. This effect is distinct from other mechanisms proposed to form dwarf spheroidals, including mergers, galaxy-galaxy harassment, or tidal and ram pressure stripping, because it is driven by gravitational resonances. It may account for the observed properties of dwarf spheroidals in the Local Group, including their morphologies and kinematics. Resonant stripping predicts that dwarf spheroidals should form through encounters, leaving detectable long stellar streams and tails.
 Joseph Silk Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1023/A:1024090930110 Abstract: I review several of the current issues in the theory of disk galaxy formation. There is sti ll much to be done, observationally and theoretically, before we can expect to approach an understanding of disk galaxies that is reliable enough to make robust predictions about the high redshift universe.
 Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1080/10556790108208204 Abstract: The time evolution of models for an isolated disk of highly flattened galaxies of stars is investigated by direct integration of the Newtonian equations of motion of N=30,000 identical stars over a time span of many galactic rotations. Certain astronomical implications of the simulations to actual disk-shaped (i.e. rapidly rotating) galaxies are explored as well.
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