Abstract:
Nuclear multifragmentation process can be viewed as a recombination of nucleons into clusters of various sizes. In a combinatorial analysis, various moments of cluster size distribution appear to be quite simple in terms of canonical partition functions. This simple model can also describe a branching phenomena and a clusterization phenomena. The possibility of applying this fragmentation model in describing a hadronization of quark-gluon system and a strangeness production is discussed.

Abstract:
Nuclear collisions at intermediate, relativistic, and ultra-relativistic energies offer unique opportunities to study in detail manifold fragmentation and clustering phenomena in dense nuclear matter. At intermediate energies, the well known processes of nuclear multifragmentation -- the disintegration of bulk nuclear matter in clusters of a wide range of sizes and masses -- allow the study of the critical point of the equation of state of nuclear matter. At very high energies, ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions offer a glimpse at the substructure of hadronic matter by crossing the phase boundary to the quark-gluon plasma. The hadronization of the quark-gluon plasma created in the fireball of a ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collision can be considered, again, as a clustering process. We will present two models which allow the simulation of nuclear multifragmentation and the hadronization via the formation of clusters in an interacting gas of quarks, and will discuss the importance of clustering to our understanding of hadronization in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions.

Abstract:
An exact analytical solution of the statistical multifragmentation model is found in thermodynamic limit. The model exhibits a 1-st order phase transition of the liquid-gas type. The mixed phase region of the phase diagram, where the gas of nuclear fragments coexists with the infinite liquid condensate, is unambiguously identified. The peculiar thermodynamic properties of the model near the boundary between the mixed phase and the pure gaseous phase are studied. The results for the caloric curve and specific heat are presented and a physical picture of the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is clarified.

Abstract:
We demonstrate the close similarity of a generalized Fermi breakup model, in which densities of excited states are taken into account, to the microcanonical statistical multifragmentation model used to describe the desintegration of highly excited fragments of nuclear reactions.

Abstract:
It is shown that the chemical equilibrium condition of the system can be unambiguously identified by analyzing the isospin evolution of fragments produced in nuclear multifragmentation process. As far as the chemical equilibrium is established, the isotope production can be used for finding properties of nuclear matter and fragments in the freeze-out volume, for example, via the isoscaling phenomenon.

Abstract:
For the statistical multifragmentation model the critical indices $\alpha^\prime, \beta, \gamma^\prime, \delta$ are calculated as functions of the Fisher parameter $\tau$. It is found that these indices have different values than in Fisher's droplet model. Some peculiarities of the scaling relations are discussed. The basic model predicts for the index $\tau$ a narrow range of values, $1.799< \tau < 1.846$, which is consistent with two experiments on nuclear multifragmentation.

Abstract:
Producing rare isotopes through statistical multifragmentation is investigated using the Mekjian method for exact solutions of the canonical ensemble. Both the initial fragmentation and the the sequential decay are modeled in such a way as to avoid Monte Carlo and thus provide yields for arbitrarily scarce fragments. The importance of sequential decay, exact particle-number conservation and the sensitivities to parameters such as density and temperature are explored. Recent measurements of isotope ratios from the fragmentation of different Sn isotopes are interpreted within this picture.

Abstract:
Different statistical multifragmentation models have been used to study isoscaling, i.e. the factorization of the isotope ratios from two reactions, into fugacity terms of proton and neutron number, R21(N,Z)=Y2(N,Z)/Y1(N,Z)=C*exp(a*N+b*Z). Even though the primary isotope distributions are quite different from the final distributions due to evaporation from the excited fragments, the values of a and b are not much affected by sequential decays. a is shown to be mainly sensitive to the proton and neutron composition of the emitting source and may be used to study isospin-dependent properties in nuclear collisions such as the symmetry energy in the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter.

Abstract:
We explore the conditions under which the particle number conservation constraint deforms the predictions of fragmentation observables as calculated in the grand canonical ensemble. We derive an analytical formula allowing to extract canonical results from a grand canonical calculation and vice versa. This formula shows that exact canonical results can be recovered for observables varying linearly or quadratically with the number of particles, independent of the grand canonical particle number fluctuations. We explore the validity of such grand canonical extrapolation for different fragmentation observables in the framework of the analytical Grand Canonical or Canonical Thermodynamical Model [(G)CTM] of nuclear multifragmentation. It is found that corrections to the grand canonical expectations can be evaluated with high precision, provided the system does not experience a first order phase transition. In particular, because of the Coulomb quenching of the liquid-gas phase transition of nuclear matter, we find that mass conservation corrections to the grand canonical ensemble can be safely computed for typical observables of interest in experimental measurements of nuclear fragmentation, even if deviations exist for highly exclusive observables.

Abstract:
We propose a new formulation of the statistical multifragmentation model based on the analysis of the virial expansion for a system of the nuclear fragments of all sizes. The developed model not only enables us to account for short-range repulsion, but also to calculate the surface free energy which is induced by the interaction between the fragments. We propose a new parameterization for the liquid phase pressure which allows us to introduce a compressible nuclear liquid into the statistical multifragmentation model. The resulting model is exactly solvable and has no irregular behavior of the isotherms in the mixed phase region that is typical for mean-field models. The general conditions for the 1-st and 2-nd (or higher) order phase transitions are formulated. It is shown that all endpoints of the present model phase diagram are the tricritical points, if the Fisher exponent $\tau$ is in the range $\{3}{2} \le \tau \le 2$. The treatment of nuclear liquid compressibility allows us to reduce the tricritical endpoint density of the statistical multifragmentation model to one third of the normal nuclear density. A specific attention is paid to of the fragment size distributions in the region of a negative surface tension at supercritical temperatures.