Abstract:
By using the non-dominated sorting-based genetic algorithm II, we study the topology optimization of the two-dimensional phoxonic crystals (PxCs) with simultaneously maximal and complete photonic and phononic bandgaps. Our results show that the optimized structures are composed of the solid lumps with narrow connections, and their Pareto-optimal solution set can keep a balance between photonic and phononic bandgap widths. Moreover, we investigate the localized states of PxCs based on the optimized structure and obtain structures with more effectively multimodal photon and phonon localization. The presented structures with highly focused energy are good choices for the PxC sensors. For practical application, we design a simple structure with smooth edges based on the optimized structure. It is shown that the designed simple structure has the similar properties with the optimized structure, i.e. simultaneous wide phononic and photonic bandgaps and a highly effective phononic/photonic cavity, see Figures 8(b) and 8(c).

Abstract:
Topological insulators, first observed in electronic systems, have inspired many analogues in photonic and phononic crystals in which remarkable one-way propagation edge states are supported by topologically nontrivial bandgaps. Such bandgaps can be achieved by breaking the time-reversal symmetry to lift the degeneracy associated with Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone. Here, we report on our construction of a phononic crystal exhibiting a Dirac-like cone in the Brillouin zone center. We demonstrate that simultaneously breaking the time-reversal symmetry and altering the geometric size of the unit cell result in a topological transition that is verified by the Chern number calculation and edge mode analysis. The topology of the bandgap is tunable by varying both the velocity field and the geometric size; such tunability may dramatically enrich the design and use of acoustic topological insulators.

Abstract:
We study the effect of planar defects in phononic crystals of spherical scatterers. It is shown that a plane of impurity spheres introduces modes of vibration of the elastic field localized on this plane at frequencies within a frequency gap of a pure phononic crystal; these show up as sharp resonances in the transmittance of elastic waves incident on a slab of the crystal. A periodic arrangement of impurity planes along a given direction creates narrow impurity bands with a width which depends on the position of these bands within the frequency gap of the pure crystal and on the separation between the impurity planes. We show how a slight deviation from periodicity (one impurity plane is different from the rest) reduces dramatically the transmittance of elastic waves incident on a slab of the crystal.

Abstract:
The refraction properties of phononic crystals are revealed by examining the anti-plane shear waves in doubly periodic elastic composites with unit cells containing rectangular and/or elliptical inclusions. The band-structure, group velocity, and energy-flux vector are calculated using a powerful variational method which accurately and efficiently yields all the field quantities over multiple frequency pass-bands. Equifrequency contours and energy-flux vectors are calculated as functions of the wave-vector. By superimposing the energy-flux vectors on equifrequency contours in the plane of the wave-vector components, and supplementing this with a three-dimensional graph of the corresponding frequency surface,a wealth of information is extracted essentially at a glance. This way it is shown that a composite with even a simple square unit cell containing a central circular inclusion can display negative or positive energy and phase-velocity refractions, or simply performs a harmonic vibration (standing wave), depending on the frequency and the wave-vector. Moreover that the same composite when interfaced with a suitable homogeneous solid can display: 1. negative refraction with negative phase-velocity refraction; 2. negative refraction with positive phase-velocity refraction; 3. positive refraction with negative phase-velocity refraction; 4. positive refraction with positive phase-velocity refraction; or even 5. complete reflection with no energy transmission, depending on the frequency, and direction and the wave length of the plane-wave which is incident from the homogeneous solid to the interface. By comparing our results with those obtained using the Rayleigh quotient and, for the layered case, with the exact solutions, the remarkable accuracy and the convergence rate of the present solution method are demonstrated. MatLab codes with comments will be provided.

Abstract:
The existence of surface elastic waves at a mechanically free surface of granular phononic crystals is studied. The granular phononic crystals are made of spherical particles distributed periodically on a simple cubic lattice. It is assumed that the particles are interacting by means of normal, shear and bending contact rigidities. First, Rayleigh-type surface acoustic waves, where the displacement of the particles takes place in the sagittal plane while the particles possess one rotational and two translational degrees of freedom, are analyzed. Second, shear-horizontal-type waves, where the displacement of the particles is normal to the sagittal plane while the particles possess one translational and two rotational degrees of freedom are studied. The existence of zero-group velocity surface acoustic waves of Rayleigh-type is theoretically predicted and interpreted. A comparison with surface waves predicted by the Cosserat theory is performed, and its limitations are established.

Abstract:
Existence of shear horizontal (SH) surface waves in 2D-periodic phononic crystals with an asymmetric depth-dependent profile is theoretically reported. Examples of dispersion spectra with band gaps for subsonic and supersonic SH surface waves are demonstrated. The link between the effective (quasistatic) speeds of the SH bulk and surface waves is established. Calculation and analysis is based on the integral form of projector on the subspace of evanescent modes which means no need for their explicit finding. This new method can be extended to the vector waves and the 3D case.

Abstract:
We report an experimental study of the elastic properties of a two-dimensional (2D) colloidal crystal subjected to light-induced substrate potentials. In agreement with recent theoretical predictions [H.H. von Gruenberg and J. Baumgartl, Phys. Rev. E 75, 051406 (2007)] the phonon band structure of such systems can be tuned depending on the symmetry and depth of the substrate potential. Calculations with binary crystals suggest that phononic band engineering can be also performed by variations of the pair potential and thus opens novel perspectives for the fabrication of phononic crystals with band gaps tunable by external fields.

Abstract:
We present a lumped model for the rotational modes induced by the rotational motion of individual scatterers in two-dimensional phononic crystals comprised of square arrays of solid cylindrical scatterers in solid hosts. The model provides a physical interpretation of the origin of the rotational modes, reveals the important role played by the rotational motion in the band structure, and reproduces the dispersion relations. The model increases the possibilities of wave manipulation in phononic crystals. In particular, expressions, derived from the model, for eigen-frequencies at high symmetry points unambiguously predict the presence of a new type of Dirac-like cone at the Brillouin center, which is found to be the result of accidental degeneracy of the rotational and dipolar modes.

Abstract:
We show both experimentally and theoretically the evanescent behaviour of modes in the Band Gap (BG) of finite Phononic Crystal (PC). Based on experimental and numerical data we obtain the imaginary part of the wave vector in good agreement with the complex band structures obtained by the Extended Plane Wave Expansion (EPWE). The calculated and measured acoustic field of a localized mode out of the point defect inside the PC presents also evanescent behaviour. The correct understanding of evanescent modes is fundamental for designing narrow filters and wave guides based on Phononic Crystals with defects.

Abstract:
We show that two-dimensional phononic crystals exhibit Dirac cone dispersion at k=0 by exploiting dipole and quadrupole accidental degeneracy. While the equi-frequency surface of Dirac cone modes is isotropic, such systems exhibit "super-anisotropy", meaning that only transverse waves are allowed along certain directions while only longitudinal waves are allowed along some other directions. Only one mode, not two, is allowed near the Dirac point, and only two effective parameters, not four, are needed to describe the dispersion. Effective medium theory finds that the phononic crystals have effectively zero mass density and zero 1/C44 at the Dirac point. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the unusual elastic wave properties near the Dirac point frequency.