Abstract:
The recent theoretical prediction and experimental realization of topological insulators (TI) has generated intense interest in this new state of quantum matter. The surface states of a three-dimensional (3D) TI such as Bi_2Te_3, Bi_2Se_3 and Sb_2Te_3 consist of a single massless Dirac cones. Crossing of the two surface state branches with opposite spins in the materials is fully protected by the time reversal (TR) symmetry at the Dirac points, which cannot be destroyed by any TR invariant perturbation. Recent advances in thin-film growth have permitted this unique two-dimensional electron system (2DES) to be probed by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). The intriguing TR symmetry protected topological states were revealed in STM experiments where the backscattering induced by non-magnetic impurities was forbidden. Here we report the Landau quantization of the topological surface states in Bi_2Se_3 in magnetic field by using STM/STS. The direct observation of the discrete Landau levels (LLs) strongly supports the 2D nature of the topological states and gives direct proof of the nondegenerate structure of LLs in TI. We demonstrate the linear dispersion of the massless Dirac fermions by the square-root dependence of LLs on magnetic field. The formation of LLs implies the high mobility of the 2DES, which has been predicted to lead to topological magneto-electric effect of the TI.

Abstract:
Since the discovery of topological insulators (TIs)1,2, the peculiar nature of their chiral surface states has been experimentally demonstrated both in bulk and in film materials with open boundaries3,4. Closed boundary on a TI surface may intrigue more interesting phenomena such as quantum confinement of massless Dirac fermions (DFs), which is analogous to the quantum corral (QC) for massive free electrons on a metal surface5-10. To date, it keeps a highly stringent challenge to realize a true Dirac QC due to the unusual transmitting power of a massless fermion. Through heteroepitaxially growing a Bi bilayer on the Bi2Te3 surface with appropriate coverage, here we demonstrate the realization of a true Dirac QC. Specifically, spectacular maps of quantum interference in equilateral triangle-shaped QCs surrounded by Bi bilayers are directly visualized by using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The present success is ascribed to a perfect orientation matching between the QC boundary and the stationary-phase scattering of massless DFs. In addition, the quasiparticle lifetime of the confined DFs is also systematically measured and analyzed.

Abstract:
The fermionic Shastry-Sutherland model has a rich phase diagram, including phases with massless Dirac fermions, a quadratic band crossing point, and a pseudospin-1 Weyl fermion. Berry phases defined by the one-dimensional momentum as a parameter are quantized into 0 or pi due to the inversion symmetry combined with the time reversal, or existence of the glide plane, which also protects the massless Dirac cones with continuous parameters. This is the symmetry protected Z2 quantization. We have further demonstrated the Z2 Berry phases generically determine the existence of edge states in various phases and with different types of the boundaries as the bulk-edge correspondence of the massless Dirac fermion systems.

Abstract:
The beta function of a two-dimensional massless Dirac Hamiltonian subject to a random scalar potential, which e.g., underlies the theoretical description of graphene, is computed numerically. Although it belongs to, from a symmetry standpoint, the two-dimensional symplectic class, the beta function monotonically increases with decreasing $g$. We also provide an argument based on the spectral flows under twisting boundary conditions, which shows that none of states of the massless Dirac Hamiltonian can be localized.

Abstract:
HgTe quantum wells and surfaces of three-dimensional topological insulators support Dirac fermions with a single-valley band dispersion. In the presence of disorder they experience weak antilocalization, which has been observed in recent transport experiments. In this work we conduct a comparative theoretical study of the weak antilocalization in HgTe quantum wells and topological surface states. The difference between these two single-valley systems comes from a finite band gap (effective Dirac mass) in HgTe quantum wells in contrast to gapless (massless) surface states in topological insulators. The finite effective Dirac mass implies a broken internal symmetry, leading to suppression of the weak antilocalization in HgTe quantum wells at times larger than certain t_M, inversely proportional to the Dirac mass. This corresponds to the opening of a relaxation gap 1/t_M in the Cooperon diffusion mode which we obtain from the Bethe-Salpeter equation including relevant spin degrees of freedom. We demonstrate that the relaxation gap exhibits an interesting nonmonotonic dependence on both carrier density and band gap, vanishing at a certain combination of these parameters. The weak-antilocalization conductivity reflects this nonmonotonic behavior which is unique to HgTe QWs and absent for topological surface states. On the other hand, the topological surface states exhibit specific weak-antilocalization magnetoconductivity in a parallel magnetic field due to their exponential decay in the bulk.

Abstract:
We discuss topological aspects of electronic properties of graphene, including edge effects, with the tight-binding model on a honeycomb lattice and its extensions to show the following: (i) Appearance of the pairn of massless Dirac dispersions, which is the origin of anomalous properties including a peculiar quantum Hall effect (QHE), is not accidental to honeycomb, but is rather generic for a class of two-dimensional lattices that interpolate between square and $\pi$-flux lattices. Persistence of the peculiar QHE is interpreted as a topological stability. (ii) While we have the massless Dirac dispersion only around E=0, the anomalous QHE associated with the Dirac cone unexpectedly persists for a wide range of the chemical potential. The range is bounded by van Hove singularities, at which we predict a transition to the ordinary fermion behavior acompanied by huge jumps in the QHE with a sign change. (iii) For edges we establish a coincidence between the quantum Hall effect in the bulk and the quantum Hall effect for the edge states, which is a manifestation of the topological bulk-edge correspondence. We have also explicitly shown that the E=0 edge states in honeycomb in zero magnetic field persist in magnetic field.

Abstract:
Dirac fermions in condensed matter physics hold great promise for novel fundamental physics, quantum device and data storage applications. IV-VI semiconductors, in the inverted regime, have been recently shown to exhibit massless topological surface Dirac fermions protected by crystalline symmetry, as well as massive bulk Dirac fermions. Under a strong magnetic field (B), both surface and bulk states are quantized into Landau levels that disperse as B^1/2, and are thus difficult to distinguish. In this work, magneto-optical absorption is used to probe the Landau levels of high mobility Bi-doped Pb0.54Sn0.46Te topological crystalline insulator (111)-oriented films. The high mobility achieved in these thin film structures allows us to probe and distinguish the Landau levels of both surface and bulk Dirac fermions and extract valuable quantitative information about their physical properties. This work paves the way for future magnetooptical and electronic transport experiments aimed at manipulating the band topology of such materials.

Abstract:
Topological aspects of graphene are reviewed focusing on the massless Dirac fermions with/without magnetic field. Doubled Dirac cones of graphene are topologically protected by the chiral symmetry. The quantum Hall effect of the graphene is described by the Berry connection of a manybody state by the filled Landau levels which naturally possesses non-Abelian gauge structures. A generic principle of the topologically non trivial states as the bulk-edge correspondence is applied for graphene with/without magnetic field and explain some of the characteristic boundary phenomena of graphene.

Abstract:
We discover a new type of geometric phase of Dirac fermions in solids, which is an electronic analogue of the Pancharatnam phase of polarized light. The geometric phase occurs in a local and nonadiabatic scattering event of Dirac fermions at a junction, unveiling topological aspects of scattering of chiral particles, and it is experimentally tunable to an arbitrary value. It provides a unique approach of detecting the topological order of the insulator in a metal-insulator junction of Dirac fermions, establishing new bulk-edge correspondence. The geometric phase also modifies the fundamental quantization rule of Dirac fermions, suggesting topological devices with nontrivial charge and spin transport such as a topological wave guide and a topological transistor.

Abstract:
We show that the interplay of cyclotron motion and Andreev reflection experienced by massless-Dirac-like charge carriers in topological-insulator surface states generates a Majorana-particle excitation. Based on an envelope-function description of the Dirac-Andreev edge states, we discuss the kinematic properties of the Majorana mode and find them to be possible to be tuned by changing the superconductor's chemical potential and/or the magnitude of the perpendicular magnetic field. Our proposal opens up new possibilities for studying Majorana fermions in a controllable setup.