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Multiwavelength investigations of co-evolution of bright custer galaxies  [PDF]
Yasuhiro Hashimoto,J. Patrick Henry,Hans Boehringer
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu311
Abstract: We report a systematic multi-wavelength investigation of environments of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), using the X-ray data from the Chandra archive, and optical images taken with 34'x 27' field-of-view Subaru Suprime-Cam. Our goal is to help understand the relationship between the BCGs and their host clusters, and between the BCGs and other galaxies, to eventually address a question of the formation and co-evolution of BCGs and the clusters. Our results include: 1) Morphological variety of BCGs, or the second or the third brightest galaxy (BCG2, BCG3), is comparable to that of other bright red sequence galaxies, suggesting that we have a continuous variation of morphology between BCGs, BCG2, and BCG3, rather than a sharp separation between the BCG and the rest of the bright galaxies. 2) The offset of the BCG position relative to the cluster centre is correlated to the degree of concentration of cluster X-ray morphology (Spearman rho = -0.79), consistent with an interpretation that BCGs tend to be off-centered inside dynamically unsettled clusters. 3) Morphologically disturbed clusters tend to harbour the brighter BCGs, implying that the "early collapse" may not be the only major mechanism to control the BCG formation and evolution.
Evolution of BCGs structural parameters in the last $\sim$6 Gyr: feedback processes versus merger events  [PDF]
B. Ascaso,J. A. L. Aguerri,J. Varela,A. Cava,D. Bettoni,M. Moles,M. D'Onofrio
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/726/2/69
Abstract: We present results on the evolution in the last 6 Gyr of the structural parameters of two samples of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). The nearby sample of BCGs consist on 69 galaxies from the WINGS survey spanning a redshift range of 0.04$<$z$<$0.07. The intermediate redshift (0.3$<$z$<$0.6) sample is formed by 20 BCGs extracted from the Hubble Space Telescope archive. Both samples have similar spatial resolution and their host clusters have similar X-ray luminosities. We report an increase in the size of the BCGs from intermediate to local redshift. However, we do not detect any variation in the S\'ersic shape parameter in both samples. These results are proved to be robust since the observed tendencies are model independent. We also obtain significant correlations between some of the BCGs parameters and the main properties of the host clusters. More luminous, larger and centrally located BCGs are located in more massive and dominant galaxy clusters. These facts indicate that the host galaxy cluster has played an important role in the formation of their BCGs. We discuss the possible mechanisms that can explain the observed evolution of the structural parameters of the BCGs. We conclude that the main mechanisms that can explain the increase in size and the non-evolution in the S\'ersic shape parameter of the BCGs in the last 6 Gyr are feedback processes. This result disagrees with semi-analytical simulation results supporting that merging processes are the main responsible for the evolution of the BCGs until the present epoch.
Submillimeter Observations of CLASH 2882 and the Evolution of Dust in this Galaxy  [PDF]
Eli Dwek,Johannes Staguhn,Richard G. Arendt,Attila Kovács,Roberto Decarli,Eiichi Egami,Micha? J. Micha?owski,Timothy D. Rawle,Sune Toft,Fabian Walter
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/813/2/119
Abstract: Two millimeter observations of the MACS J1149.6+2223 cluster have detected a source that was consistent with the location of the lensed MACS1149-JD galaxy at z=9.6. A positive identification would have rendered this galaxy as the youngest dust forming galaxy in the universe. Follow up observation with the AzTEC 1.1 mm camera and the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) at 1.3 mm have not confirmed this association. In this paper we show that the NOEMA observations associate the 2 mm source with [PCB2012] 2882 ([PCB2012] 2882 is the NED-searchable name for this source.), source number 2882 in the Hubble Space Telescope ( HST) Cluster Lensing and Supernova (CLASH) catalog of MACS J1149.6+2223. This source, hereafter referred to as CLASH 2882, is a gravitationally lensed spiral galaxy at z=0.99. We combine the GISMO 2 mm and NOEMA 1.3 mm fluxes with other (rest frame) UV to far-IR observations to construct the full spectral energy distribution (SED) of this galaxy, and derive its star formation history, and stellar and interstellar dust content. The current star formation rate of the galaxy is 54/mu Msun yr-1, and its dust mass is about 5 10^7/mu Msun, where mu is the lensing magnification factor for this source, which has a mean value of 2.7. The inferred dust mass is higher than the maximum dust mass that can be produced by core collapse supernovae (CCSN) and evolved AGB stars. As with many other star forming galaxies, most of the dust mass in CLASH 2882 must have been accreted in the dense phases of the ISM.
CLASH-VLT: Is there a dependence in metallicity evolution on galaxy structures?  [PDF]
Ulrike Kuchner,Christian Maier,Bodo Ziegler,Miguel Verdugo,Oliver Czoske,Piero Rosati,Italo Balestra,Amata Mercurio,Mario Nonino
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921314009909
Abstract: We investigate the environmental dependence of the mass-metallicty (MZ) relation and it's connection to galaxy stellar structures and morphologies. In our studies, we analyze galaxies in massive clusters at z~0.4 from the CLASH (HST) and CLASH-VLT surveys and measure their gas metallicities, star-formation rates, stellar structures and morphologies. We establish the MZ relation for 90 cluster and 40 field galaxies finding a shift of ~-0.3 dex in comparison to the local trends seen in SDSS for the majority of galaxies with logM<10.5. We do not find significant differences of the distribution of 4 distinct morphological types that we introduce by our classification scheme (smooth, disc-like, peculiar, compact). Some variations between cluster and field galaxies in the MZ relation are visible at the high mass end. However, obvious trends for cluster specific interactions (enhancements or quenching of SFRs) are missing. In particular, galaxies with peculiar stellar structures that hold signs for galaxy interactions, are distributed in a similar way as disc-like galaxies - in SFRs, masses and O/H abundances. We further show that our sample falls around an extrapolation of the star-forming main sequence (the SFR-M* relation) at this redshift, indicating that emission-line selected samples do not have preferentially high star-formation rates (SFRs). However, we find that half of the high mass cluster members (M*>10^10Msun) lie below the main sequence which corresponds to the higher mass objects that reach solar abundances in the MZ diagram.
Ultraviolet Morphologies and Star-Formation Rates of CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies  [PDF]
Megan Donahue,Thomas Connor,Kevin Fogarty,Yuan Li,G. Mark Voit,Marc Postman,Anton Koekemoer,John Moustakas,Larry Bradley,Holland Ford
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/805/2/177
Abstract: Brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) are usually quiescent, but many exhibit star formation. Here we exploit the opportunity provided by rest-frame UV imaging of galaxy clusters in the CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble) Multi-Cycle Treasury Project to reveal the diversity of UV morphologies in BCGs and to compare them with recent simulations of the cool, star-forming gas structures produced by precipitation-driven feedback. All of the CLASH BCGs are detected in the rest-frame UV (280 nm), regardless of their star-formation activity, because evolved stellar populations produce a modest amount of UV light that traces the relatively smooth, symmetric, and centrally peaked stellar distribution seen in the near infrared. Ultraviolet morphologies among the BCGs with strong UV excesses exhibit distinctive knots, multiple elongated clumps, and extended filaments of emission that distinctly differ from the smooth profiles of the UV-quiet BCGs. These structures, which are similar to those seen in the few star-forming BCGs observed in the UV at low redshift, are suggestive of bi-polar streams of clumpy star formation, but not of spiral arms or large, kpc-scale disks. Based on the number of streams and lack of culprit companion galaxies, these streams are unlikely to have arisen from multiple collisions with gas-rich galaxies. These star-forming UV structures are morphologically similar to the cold-gas structures produced in simulations of precipitation-driven AGN feedback in which jets uplift low-entropy gas to greater altitudes, causing it to condense. Unobscured star-formation rates estimated from CLASH UV images using the Kennicutt relation range up to 80 solar masses per year in the most extended and highly structured systems. The circumgalactic gas-entropy threshold for star formation in CLASH BCGs at z~0.2-0.5 is indistinguishable from that for clusters at z < 0.2.
CLASH-VLT: Environment-driven evolution of galaxies in the z=0.209 cluster Abell 209  [PDF]
M. Annunziatella,A. Mercurio,A. Biviano,M. Girardi,M. Nonino,I. Balestra,P. Rosati,G. Bartosch Caminha,M. Brescia,R. Gobat,C. Grillo,M. Lombardi,B. Sartoris,G. De Lucia,R. Demarco,B. Frye,A. Fritz,J. Moustakas,M. Scodeggio,U. Kuchner,C. Maier,B. Ziegler
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The analysis of galaxy properties and the relations among them and the environment, can be used to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. We study the cluster A209 by using the CLASH-VLT spectroscopic data combined with Subaru photometry, yielding to 1916 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^{8.6} Msun. We determine: i) the stellar mass function of star-forming and passive galaxies; ii) the intra-cluster light and its properties; iii) the orbits of low- and high-mass passive galaxies; and iv) the mass-size relation of ETGs. The stellar mass function of the star-forming galaxies does not depend on the environment, while the slope found for passive galaxies becomes flatter in the densest region. The color distribution of the intra-cluster light is consistent with the color of passive members. The analysis of the dynamical orbits shows that low-mass passive galaxies have tangential orbits, avoiding small pericenters around the BCG. The mass-size relation of low-mass passive ETGs is flatter than that of high mass galaxies, and its slope is consistent with that of field star-forming galaxies. Low-mass galaxies are also more compact within the scale radius of 0.65 Mpc. The ratio between stellar and number density profiles shows a mass segregation in the center. The comparative analysis of the stellar and total density profiles indicates that this effect is due to dynamical friction. Our results are consistent with a scenario in which the "environmental quenching" of low-mass galaxies is due to mechanisms such as harassment out to R200, starvation and ram-pressure stripping at smaller radii, as supported by the analysis of the mass function, of the dynamical orbits and of the mass-size relation of passive early-types in different regions. Our analyses support the idea that the intra-cluster light is formed through the tidal disruption of subgiant galaxies.
Intra Cluster Light properties in the CLASH-VLT cluster MACS J1206.2-0847  [PDF]
V. Presotto,M. Girardi,M. Nonino,A. Mercurio,C. Grillo,P. Rosati,A. Biviano,M. Annunziatella,I. Balestra,W. Cui,B. Sartoris,D. Lemze,B. Ascaso,J. Moustakas,H. Ford,A. Fritz,O. Czoske,S. Ettori,U. Kuchner,M. Lombardi,C. Maier,E. Medezinski,A. Molino,M. Scodeggio,V. Strazzullo,P. Tozzi,B. Ziegler,M. Bartelmann,N. Benitez,L. Bradley,M. Brescia,T. Broadhurst,D. Coe,M. Donahue,R. Gobat,G. Graves,D. Kelson,A. Koekemoer,P. Melchior,M. Meneghetti,J. Merten,L. Moustakas,E. Munari,M. Postman,E. Reg?s,S. Seitz,K. Umetsu,W. Zheng,A. Zitrin
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201323251
Abstract: We aim at constraining the assembly history of clusters by studying the intra cluster light (ICL) properties, estimating its contribution to the fraction of baryons in stars, f*, and understanding possible systematics/bias using different ICL detection techniques. We developed an automated method, GALtoICL, based on the software GALAPAGOS to obtain a refined version of typical BCG+ICL maps. We applied this method to our test case MACS J1206.2-0847, a massive cluster located at z=0.44, that is part of the CLASH sample. Using deep multi-band SUBARU images, we extracted the surface brightness (SB) profile of the BCG+ICL and we studied the ICL morphology, color, and contribution to f* out to R500. We repeated the same analysis using a different definition of the ICL, SBlimit method, i.e. a SB cut-off level, to compare the results. The most peculiar feature of the ICL in MACS1206 is its asymmetric radial distribution, with an excess in the SE direction and extending towards the 2nd brightest cluster galaxy which is a Post Starburst galaxy. This suggests an interaction between the BCG and this galaxy that dates back to t <= 1.5 Gyr. The BCG+ICL stellar content is 8% of M_(*,500) and the (de-) projected baryon fraction in stars is f*=0.0177 (0.0116), in excellent agreement with recent results. The SBlimit method provides systematically higher ICL fractions and this effect is larger at lower SB limits. This is due to the light from the outer envelopes of member galaxies that contaminate the ICL. Though more time consuming, the GALtoICL method provides safer ICL detections that are almost free of this contamination. This is one of the few ICL study at redshift z > 0.3. At completion, the CLASH/VLT program will allow us to extend this analysis to a statistically significant cluster sample spanning a wide redshift range: 0.2
Clash of Ignorance  [PDF]
Karim H. Karim,Mahmoud Eid
Global Media Journal : Canadian Edition , 2012,
Abstract: The clash of ignorance thesis presents a critique of the clash of civilizations theory. It challenges the assumptions that civilizations are monolithic entities that do not interact and that the Self and the Other are always opposed to each other. Despite some significantly different values and clashes between Western and Muslim civilizations, they overlap with each other in many ways and have historically demonstrated the capacity for fruitful engagement. The clash of ignorance thesis makes a significant contribution to the understanding of intercultural and international communication as well as to the study of inter-group relations in various other areas of scholarship. It does this by bringing forward for examination the key impediments to mutually beneficial interaction between groups. The thesis directly addresses the particular problem of ignorance that other epistemological approaches have not raised in a substantial manner. Whereas the critique of Orientalism deals with the hegemonic construction of knowledge, the clash of ignorance paradigm broadens the inquiry to include various actors whose respective distortions of knowledge symbiotically promote conflict with each other. It also augments the power-knowledge model to provide conceptual and analytical tools for understanding the exploitation of ignorance for the purposes of enhancing particular groups’ or individuals’ power. Whereas academics, policymakers, think tanks, and religious leaders have referred to the clash of ignorance concept, this essay contributes to its development as a theory that is able to provide a valid basis to explain the empirical evidence drawn from relevant cases.
Star Formation Activity in CLASH Brightest Cluster Galaxies  [PDF]
Kevin Fogarty,Marc Postman,Thomas Connor,Megan Donahue,John Moustakas
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/813/2/117
Abstract: The CLASH X-ray selected sample of 20 galaxy clusters contains ten brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) that exhibit significant ($>$5 $\sigma$) extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). Star formation activity is inferred from photometric estimates of UV and H$\alpha$+[\ion{N}{2}] emission in knots and filaments detected in CLASH HST ACS and WFC3 observations. UV-derived SFRs in these BCGs span two orders of magnitude, including two with a SFR $\gtrsim$ 100 M$_{\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. These measurements are supplemented with [\ion{O}{2}], [\ion{O}{3}], and H$\beta$ fluxes measured from spectra obtained with the SOAR telescope. We confirm that photoionization from ongoing star formation powers the line emission nebulae in these BCGs, although in many BCGs there is also evidence of a LINER-like contribution to the line emission. Coupling these data with Chandra X-ray measurements, we infer that the star formation occurs exclusively in low-entropy cluster cores and exhibits a correlation with gas properties related to cooling. We also perform an in-depth study of the starburst history of the BCG in the cluster RXJ1532.9+3021, and create 2D maps of stellar properties on scales down to $\sim$350 pc. These maps reveal evidence for an ongoing burst occurring in elongated filaments, generally on $\sim$ 0.5-1.0 Gyr timescales, although some filaments are consistent with much younger ($\lesssim$ 100 Myr) burst timescales and may be correlated with recent activity from the AGN. The relationship between BCG SFRs and the surrounding ICM gas properties provide new support for the process of feedback-regulated cooling in galaxy clusters and is consistent with recent theoretical predictions.
The Shapes of BCGs and normal Ellipticals in Nearby Clusters  [PDF]
G. Fasano,D. Bettoni,B. Ascaso,G. Tormen,B. M. Poggianti,T. Valentinuzzi,M. D'Onofrio,J. Fritz,A. Moretti,A. Omizzolo,A. Cava,M. Moles,A. Dressler,W. J. Couch,P. Kjaergaard,J. Varrela
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.16361.x
Abstract: We compare the apparent axial ratio distributions of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) and normal ellipticals (Es) in our sample of 75 galaxy clusters from the WINGS survey. Most BCGs in our clusters (69%) are classified as cD galaxies. The sample of cDs has been completed by 14 additional cDs (non-BCGs) we found in our clusters. We find that: (i) Es have triaxial shape, the triaxiality sharing almost evenly the intrinsic axial ratios parameter space, with a weak preference for prolateness; (ii) the BCGs have triaxial shape as well. However, their tendence towards prolateness is much stronger than in the case of Es. Such a strong prolateness appears entirely due to the sizeable (dominant) component of cDs inside the WINGS sample of BCGs. In fact, while the 'normal'(non-cD) BCGs do not differ from Es, as far as the shape distribution is concerned, the axial ratio distribution of BCG_cD galaxies is found to support quite prolate shapes; (iii) our result turns out to be strongly at variance with the only similar, previous analysis by Ryden et al.(1993)(RLP93), where BCGs and Es were found to share the same axial ratio distribution; (iv) our data suggest that the above discrepancy is mainly caused by the different criteria that RLP93 and ourselves use to select the cluster samples, coupled with a preference of cDs to reside in powerful X-ray emitting clusters; (v) the GIF2 N-body results suggest that the prolateness of the BCGs (in particular the cDs) could reflect the shape of the associated dark matter halos.
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