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The dusty environment of HD 97300 as seen by Herschel and Spitzer  [PDF]
á. Kóspál,T. Prusti,N. L. J. Cox,G. L. Pilbratt,Ph. André,C. Alves de Oliveira,E. Winston,B. Merín,A. Ribas,P. Royer,R. Vavrek,C. Waelkens
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201218823
Abstract: Aims. We analyze the surroundings of HD 97300, one of two intermediate-mass stars in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region. The star is known to be surrounded by a conspicuous ring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Methods. We present infrared images taken with Herschel and Spitzer using 11 different broad-band filters between 3.6 um and 500 um. We compare the morphology of the emission using cuts along different position angles. We construct spectral energy distributions, which we compare to different dust models, and calculate dust temperatures. We also derive opacity maps and analyze the density structure of the environment of HD 97300. Results. We find that HD 97300 has no infrared excess at or below 24 um, confirming its zero-age main-sequence nature. The morphology of the ring is very similar between 3.6 um and 24 um. The emission at these wavelengths is dominated by either PAH features or PAH continuum. At longer wavelengths, only the northwestern part of the ring is visible. A fit to the 100-500 um observations suggests that the emission is due to relatively warm (~26 K) dust. The temperature gradually decreases with increasing distance from the ring. We find a general decrease in the density from north to south, and an approximate 10% density increase in the northeastern part of the ring. Conclusions. Our results are consistent with the theory that the ring around HD 97300 is essentially a bubble blown into the surrounding interstellar matter and heated by the star.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in spatially resolved extragalactic star forming complexes  [PDF]
M. S. Khramtsova,D. S. Wiebe,P. A. Boley,Ya. N. Pavlyuchenkov
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt319
Abstract: The abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in low- and high-metallicity galaxies has been widely discussed since the time when detailed infrared data for extragalactic objects were first obtained. On the scales of entire galaxies, a smaller PAH abundance in lower-metallicity galaxies is often observed. We study this relationship for star-forming regions in nearby galaxies, for a sample containing more than 200 HII complexes, using spatially-resolved observations from the Herschel Space Observatory and Spitzer Space Telescope. We use a model for the dust emission to estimate the physical parameters (PAH abundance, metallicity, ultraviolet radiation field, etc.) of these complexes. The same correlation of PAH abundance with metallicity, as seen for entire galaxies, is apparently preserved at smaller scales, at least when the Kobulnicky & Kewley metallicity calibration is used. We discuss possible reasons for this correlation, noting that traces of less-effective PAH formation in low-metallicity AGB stars should be smeared out by radial mixing in galactic disks. Effective destruction by the harder and more intensive ultraviolet field in low-metallicity environments is qualitatively consistent with our data, as the ultraviolet field intensity, derived from the infrared photometry, is indeed smaller in HII complexes with lower metallicity.
The Debris Disk Candidates: Eleven 24$μ$m excess stars in Spitzer SWIRE Fields  [PDF]
Hong Wu,Chao-Jian Wu,Chen Cao,Sebastian Wolf,Jing-Yao Hu
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/1674-4527/12/5/004
Abstract: We present the optical to mid-infrared SEDs of 11 debris disk candidates from $Spitzer$ SWIRE fields. All these candidates are selected from SWIRE 24$\mu$m sources matched with both the SDSS star catalog and the 2MASS point source catalog. They show an excess in the mid-infrared at 24$\mu$m ($K_S$-[24]$_{Vega}$ $\ge$ 0.44) indicating the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. The observed optical spectra show that they are all late type main-sequence stars covering the spectral types of FGKM. Their fractional luminosities are well above 5$\times10^{-5}$, even up to the high fractional luminosity of 1$\times10^{-3}$. The high galactic latitudes of SWIRE fields indicate that most of these candidates could belong to the oldest stars in the thick disk. Our results indicate that the high fractional luminosity debris disks could exist in the old solar-like star systems, though they are now still quite rare. Their discoveries at high-galactic latitudes will also provide us an excellent opportunity to the further studies of properties and evolution of the debris disk in the ISM poor environments.
Modeling IR SED of AGN with Spitzer and Herschel data  [PDF]
Anna Feltre
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: One of the remaining open issues in the context of the analysis of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is the evidence that nuclear gravitational accretion is often accompanied by a concurrent starburst (SB) activity. What is, in this picture, the role played by the obscuring dust around the nucleus and what do the state of the art AGN torus models have to say? Can the IR data provided by Spitzer and Herschel help us in extensively investigate both phenomena and, if so, how and with what limitations? In this paper we present our contribution to the efforts of answering these questions. We show some of the main results coming from a comparative study of various AGN SED modeling approaches, focusing mostly on the much-debated issue about the morphology of the dust distribution in the toroidal structure surrounding the AGN. We found that the properties of dust in AGN as measured by matching observations (be it broad band IR photometry or IR spectra) with models, strongly depend on the choiceof the dust distribution. Then, we present the spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting procedure we developed, making make the best use of Spitzer and Herschel SPIRE mid- and far-IR observations, to dig into the role played by the possible presence of an AGN on the host galaxy's properties.
Gas lines from the 5-Myr old optically thin disk around HD141569A. Herschel observations and modeling  [PDF]
Wing-Fai Thi,Christophe Pinte,Eric Pantin,Jean-Charles Augereau,Gwendolyn Meeus,Francois Menard,Claire Martin-Za?di,Peter Woitke,Pablo Riviere-Marichalar,Inga Kamp,Andres Carmona,Goran Sandell,Carlos Eiroa,Williams Dent,Benjamin Montesinos,Giambattista Aresu,Rowin Meijerink,Marco Spaans,Glenn White,David Ardila,Jeremy Lebreton,Ignacio Mendigutia,Sean Brittain
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201322150
Abstract: At the distance of 99-116 pc, HD141569A is one of the nearest HerbigAe stars that is surrounded by a tenuous disk, probably in transition between a massive primordial disk and a debris disk. We observed the fine-structure lines of OI at 63 and 145 micron and the CII line at 157 micron with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Telescope as part of the open-time large programme GASPS. We complemented the atomic line observations with archival Spitzer spectroscopic and photometric continuum data, a ground-based VLT-VISIR image at 8.6 micron, and 12CO fundamental ro-vibrational and pure rotational J=3-2 observations. We simultaneously modeled the continuum emission and the line fluxes with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MCFOST and the thermo-chemical code ProDiMo to derive the disk gas- and dust properties assuming no dust settling. The models suggest that the oxygen lines are emitted from the inner disk around HD141569A, whereas the [CII] line emission is more extended. The CO submillimeter flux is emitted mostly by the outer disk. Simultaneous modeling of the photometric and line data using a realistic disk structure suggests a dust mass derived from grains with a radius smaller than 1 mm of 2.1E-7 MSun and from grains with a radius of up to 1 cm of 4.9E-6 MSun. We constrained the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mass to be between 2E-11 and 1..4E-10 MSun assuming circumcircumcoronene (C150H30) as the representative PAH. The associated PAH abundance relative to hydrogen is lower than those found in the interstellar medium (3E-7) by two to three orders of magnitude. The disk around HD141569A is less massive in gas (2.5 to 4.9E-4 MSun or 67 to 164 MEarth) and has a flat opening angle (<10%). [abridged]
Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of post-AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud ---polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at low metallicities  [PDF]
Mikako Matsuura,Jeronimo Bernard-Salas,T. Lloyd Evans,Kevin M. Volk,Bruce J. Hrivnak,G. C. Sloan,You-Hua Chu,Robert Gruendl,Kathleen E. Kraemer,Els Peeters,R. Szczerba,P. R. Wood,Albert A. Zijlstra,S. Hony,Yoshifusa Ita,Devika Kamath,Eric Lagadec,Quentin A Parker,Warren A. Reid,Takashi Shimonishi,H. Van Winckel,Paul M. Woods,F. Kemper,Margaret Meixner,M. Otsuka,R. Sahai,B. A. Sargent,J. L. Hora,Iain McDonald
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt2495
Abstract: This paper reports variations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) features that were found in Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of carbon-rich post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The paper consists of two parts. The first part describes our Spitzer spectral observing programme of 24 stars including post-AGB candidates. The latter half of this paper presents the analysis of PAH features in 20 carbon-rich post-AGB stars in the LMC, assembled from the Spitzer archive as well as from our own programme. We found that five post-AGB stars showed a broad feature with a peak at 7.7 micron, that had not been classified before. Further, the 10--13 micron PAH spectra were classified into four classes, one of which has three broad peaks at 11.3, 12.3 and 13.3 micron rather than two distinct sharp peaks at 11.3 and 12.7 micron, as commonly found in HII regions. Our studies suggest that PAHs are gradually processed while the central stars evolve from post-AGB phase to PNe, changing their composition before PAHs are incorporated into the interstellar medium. Although some metallicity dependence of PAH spectra exists, the evolutionary state of an object is more significant than its metallicity in determining the spectral characteristics of PAHs for LMC and Galactic post-AGB stars.
Stellar Mass Estimation Based on IRAC Photometry for Spitzer SWIRE-field Galaxies  [PDF]
Yi-Nan Zhu,Hong Wu,Hai-Ning Li,Chen Cao
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1088/1674-4527/10/4/004
Abstract: We analyze the feasibility to estimate the stellar mass of galaxies by mid-infrared luminosities based on a large sample of galaxies cross-identified from $Spitzer$ SWIRE fields and SDSS spectrographic survey. We derived the formulae to calculate the stellar mass by using IRAC 3.6$\mu$m and 4.5$\mu$m luminosities. The mass-to-luminosity ratios of IRAC 3.6$\mu$m and 4.5$\mu$m luminosities are more sensitive to star formation history of galaxies than other factors, such as the intrinsic extinction, metallicity and star formation rate. To remove the affection from star formation history, we used g-r color to recalibrate the formulae and obtain a better result. It must be more careful to estimate the stellar mass of low metallicity galaxies using our formulae. Due to the emission from dust heated by hottest young stars, luminous infrared galaxies present higher IRAC 4.5 $\mu$m luminosity compared to IRAC 3.6 $\mu$m luminosity. For most of type-II AGNs, the nuclear activity can not enhance 3.6$\mu$m and 4.5$\mu$m luminosities compared with normal galaxies. The star formation in our AGN-hosting galaxies is also very weak, almost all of which are early-type galaxies.
Calibration of the total infrared luminosity of nearby galaxies from Spitzer and Herschel bands  [PDF]
M. Galametz,R. C. Kennicutt,D. Calzetti,G. Aniano,B. T. Draine,M. Boquien,B. Brandl,K. V. Croxall,D. A. Dale,C. W. Engelbracht,K. D. Gordon,B. Groves,C. -N. Hao,G. Helou,J. L. Hinz,L. K. Hunt,B. D. Johnson,Y. Li,E. Murphy,H. Roussel,K. Sandstrom,R. A. Skibba,F. S. Tabatabaei
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt313
Abstract: We present new empirical calibrations to estimate resolved and integrated total infrared luminosities from Spitzer and Herschel bands used as monochromatic or combined tracers. We base our calibrations on resolved elements of nearby galaxies (3 to 30 Mpc) observed with Herschel. We perform a resolved SED modelling of these objects using the Draine and Li (2007) dust models and investigate the influence of the addition of SPIRE measurements in the estimation of LTIR. We find that using data up to 250 um leads to local LTIR values consistent with those obtained with a complete coverage (up to 500 um) within 10 per cent for most of our resolved elements. We then study the distribution of energy in the resolved SEDs of our galaxies. The bulk of energy (30-50 per cent) is contained in the (70-160 um) band. The (24-70 um) fraction decreases with increasing metallicity. The (160-1100 um) submillimeter band can account for up to 25 per cent of the LTIR in metal-rich galaxies. We investigate the correlation between TIR surface brightnesses/luminosities and monochromatic Spitzer and Herschel surface brightnesses/luminosities. The three PACS bands can be used as reliable monochromatic estimators of the LTIR, the 100 um band being the most reliable monochromatic tracer. There is also a strong correlation between the SPIRE 250um and LTIR, although with more scatter than for the PACS relations. We also study the ability of our monochromatic relations to reproduce integrated LTIR of nearby galaxies as well as LTIR of z=1-3 sources. Finally, we provide calibration coefficients that can be used to derive TIR surface brightnesses/luminosities from a combination of Spitzer and Herschel surface brightnesses/fluxes and analyse the associated uncertainties.
A Study of Heating and Cooling of the ISM in NGC 1097 with Herschel-PACS and Spitzer-IRS  [PDF]
P. Beirao,L. Armus,G. Helou,P. N. Appleton,J. -D. T. Smith,K. V. Croxall,E. J. Murphy,D. A. Dale,B. T. Draine,M. G. Wolfire,K. M. Sandstrom,G. Aniano,A. D. Bolatto,B. Groves,B. R. Brandl,E. Schinnerer,A. F. Crocker,J. L. Hinz,H. -W. Rix,R. C. Kennicutt,D. Calzetti,A. Gil de Paz,G. Dumas,M. Galametz,K. D. Gordon,C. -N. Hao,B. Johnson,J. Koda,O. Krause,T. van der Laan,A. K. Leroy,Y. Li,S. E. Meidt,J. D. Meyer,N. Rahman,H. Roussel,M. Sauvage,S. Srinivasan,L. Vigroux,F. Walter,B. E. Warren
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/751/2/144
Abstract: NGC 1097 is a nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy with a bright circumnuclear starburst ring, a strong large-scale bar and an active nucleus. We present a detailed study of the spatial variation of the far infrared (FIR) [CII]158um and [OI]63um lines and mid-infrared H2 emission lines as tracers of gas cooling, and of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands as tracers of the photoelectric heating, using Herschel-PACS, and Spitzer-IRS infrared spectral maps. We focus on the nucleus and the ring, and two star forming regions (Enuc N and Enuc S). We estimated a photoelectric gas heating efficiency ([CII]158um+[OI]63um)/PAH in the ring about 50% lower than in Enuc N and S. The average 11.3/7.7um PAH ratio is also lower in the ring, which may suggest a larger fraction of ionized PAHs, but no clear correlation with [CII]158{\mu}m/PAH(5.5 - 14um) is found. PAHs in the ring are responsible for a factor of two more [CII]158um and [OI]63um emission per unit mass than PAHs in the Enuc S. SED modeling indicates that at most 25% of the FIR power in the ring and Enuc S can come from high intensity photodissociation regions (PDRs), in which case G0 ~ 10^2.3 and nH ~ 10^3.5 cm^-3 in the ring. For these values of G0 and nH PDR models cannot reproduce the observed H2 emission. Much of the the H2 emission in the starburst ring could come from warm regions in the diffuse ISM that are heated by turbulent dissipation or shocks.
The Evolution of Protostars: Insights from Ten Years of Infrared Surveys with Spitzer and Herschel  [PDF]
Michael M. Dunham,Amelia M. Stutz,Lori E. Allen,Neal J. Evans II,William J. Fischer,S. Thomas Megeath,Philip C. Myers,Stella S. R. Offner,Charles A. Poteet,John J. Tobin,Eduard I. Vorobyov
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816531240-ch009
Abstract: Stars form from the gravitational collapse of dense molecular cloud cores. In the protostellar phase, mass accretes from the core onto a protostar, likely through an accretion disk, and it is during this phase that the initial masses of stars and the initial conditions for planet formation are set. Over the past decade, new observational capabilities provided by the Spitzer Space Telescope and Herschel Space Observatory have enabled wide-field surveys of entire star-forming clouds with unprecedented sensitivity, resolution, and infrared wavelength coverage. We review resulting advances in the field, focusing both on the observations themselves and the constraints they place on theoretical models of star formation and protostellar evolution. We also emphasize open questions and outline new directions needed to further advance the field.
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