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Quantum critical behavior of itinerant ferromagnets  [PDF]
Thomas Vojta,D. Belitz,T. R. Kirkpatrick,R. Narayanan
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-3889(199911)8:7/9<593::AID-ANDP593>3.0.CO
Abstract: We investigate the quantum phase transition of itinerant ferromagnets. It is shown that correlation effects in the underlying itinerant electron system lead to singularities in the order parameter field theory that result in an effective long-range interaction between the spin fluctuations. This interaction turns out to be generically {\em antiferromagnetic} for clean systems. In disordered systems analogous correlation effects lead to even stronger singularities. The resulting long-range interaction is, however, generically ferromagnetic. We discuss two possibilities for the ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. In clean systems, the transition is generically of first order, as is experimentally observed in MnSi. However, under certain conditions the transition may be continuous with non-mean field critical behavior. In disordered systems, one finds a very rich phase diagram showing first order and continuous phase transitions and several multicritical points.
Quantum critical behavior of itinerant ferromagnets  [PDF]
D. Belitz,T. R. Kirkpatrick
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/8/48/004
Abstract: The quantum ferromagnetic transition of itinerant electrons is considered. We give a pedagogical review of recent results which show that zero-temperature soft modes that are commonly neglected, invalidate the standard Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson description of this transition. If these modes are taken into account, then the resulting order parameter field theory is nonlocal in space and time. Nevertheless, for both disordered and clean systems the critical behavior has been exactly determined for spatial dimensions d>2 and d>1, respectively. The critical exponents characterizing the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition are dimensionality dependent, and substantially different from both mean-field critical exponents, and from the classical Heisenberg exponents that characterize the transition at finite temperatures. Our results should be easily observable, particularly those for the disordered case, and experiments to check our predictions are proposed.
Quantum critical behavior of clean itinerant ferromagnets  [PDF]
Thomas Vojta,D. Belitz,R. Narayanan,T. R. Kirkpatrick
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1007/s002570050399
Abstract: We consider the quantum ferromagnetic transition at zero temperature in clean itinerant electron systems. We find that the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson order parameter field theory breaks down since the electron-electron interaction leads to singular coupling constants in the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson functional. These couplings generate an effective long-range interaction between the spin or order parameter fluctuations of the form 1/r^{2d-1}, with d the spatial dimension. This leads to unusual scaling behavior at the quantum critical point in 1 < d\leq 3, which we determine exactly. We also discuss the quantum-to-classical crossover at small but finite temperatures, which is characterized by the appearance of multiple temperature scales. A comparison with recent results on disordered itinerant ferromagnets is given.
Quantum Critical Behavior in Disordered Itinerant Ferromagnets: Instability of the Ferromagnetic Phase  [PDF]
S. L. Sessions,D. Belitz
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.054411
Abstract: An effective field theory is derived that describes the quantum critical behavior of itinerant ferromagnets as the transition is approached from the ferromagnetic phase. This complements a recent study of the critical behavior on the paramagnetic side of the phase transition, and investigates the role of the ferromagnetic Goldstone modes near criticality. We find that the Goldstone modes have no direct impact on the critical behavior, and that the critical exponents are the same as determined by combining results from the paramagnetic phase with scaling arguments.
Quantum critical behavior in disordered itinerant ferromagnets: Logarithmic corrections to scaling  [PDF]
D. Belitz,T. R. Kirkpatrick,Maria Teresa Mercaldo,Sharon L. Sessions
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.63.174428
Abstract: The quantum critical behavior of disordered itinerant ferromagnets is determined exactly by solving a recently developed effective field theory. It is shown that there are logarithmic corrections to a previous calculation of the critical behavior, and that the exact critical behavior coincides with that found earlier for a phase transition of undetermined nature in disordered interacting electron systems. This confirms a previous suggestion that the unspecified transition should be identified with the ferromagnetic transition. The behavior of the conductivity, the tunneling density of states, and the phase and quasiparticle relaxation rates across the ferromagnetic transition is also calculated.
Quantum critical behavior of disordered itinerant ferromagnets  [PDF]
T. R. Kirkpatrick,D. Belitz
Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.53.14364
Abstract: The quantum ferromagnetic transition at zero temperature in disordered itinerant electron systems is considered. Nonmagnetic quenched disorder leads to diffusive electron dynamics that induces an effective long-range interaction between the spin or order parameter fluctuations of the form r^{2-2d}, with d the spatial dimension. This leads to unusual scaling behavior at the quantum critical point, which is determined exactly. In three-dimensional systems the quantum critical exponents are substantially different from their finite temperature counterparts, a difference that should be easily observable. Experiments to check these predictions are proposed.
Hybridization driven quantum critical behavior in weakly-itinerant ferromagnets  [PDF]
M. B. Silva Neto,A. H. Castro Neto,J. S. Kim,G. R. Stewart
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: We investigate the unusual magnetic properties of nearly-critical, weakly-itinerant ferromagnets with general formula UTX, where T=Rh,Co and X=Ge,Si. As a unique feature about these systems, we show that changes in the V_{df} hybridization control their proximity to a ferromagnetic instability, and determine the evolution of: the ground state magnetization, M_0, the Curie Temperature, T_C, the density of states at the Fermi level, N(E_F), the T^2 resistivity coefficient, A, and the specific heat coefficient, \gamma. The universal aspect of our findings comes from the dependence on only two parameters: the T_d bandwidth, W_d, and the distance between T_d and U_f band centers, C_{T_d}-C_{U_f}.
Tricritical behavior in itinerant quantum ferromagnets  [PDF]
D. Belitz,T. R. Kirkpatrick,Joerg Rollbuehler
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.247205
Abstract: It is shown that the peculiar features observed in the low-temperature phase diagrams of ZrZn_2, UGe_2, and MnSi can be understood in terms of a simple mean-field theory. The nature of the ferromagnetic transition changes from second order to first order at a tricritical point, and in a small external magnetic field surfaces of first-order transitions emerge which terminate in quantum critical points. This field dependence of the phase diagram follows directly from the existence of the tricritical point. The quantum critical behavior in a nonzero field is calculated exactly.
Local field theory for disordered itinerant quantum ferromagnets  [PDF]
D. Belitz,T. R. Kirkpatrick,Maria Teresa Mercaldo,Sharon L. Sessions
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.63.174427
Abstract: An effective field theory is derived that describes the quantum critical behavior of itinerant ferromagnets in the presence of quenched disorder. In contrast to previous approaches, all soft modes are kept explicitly. The resulting effective theory is local and allows for an explicit perturbative treatment. It is shown that previous suggestions for the critical fixed point and the critical behavior are recovered under certain assumptions. The validity of these assumptions is discussed in the light of the existence of two different time scales. It is shown that, in contrast to previous suggestions, the correct fixed point action is not Gaussian, and that the previously proposed critical behavior was correct only up to logarithmic corrections. The connection with other theories of disordered interacting electrons, and in particular with the resolution of the runaway flow problem encountered in these theories, is also discussed.
One-dimensional itinerant ferromagnets with Heisenberg symmetry and the ferromagnetic quantum critical point  [PDF]
K. Sengupta,Yong Baek Kim
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.71.174427
Abstract: We study one-dimensional itinerant ferromagnets with Heisenberg symmetry near a ferromagnetic quantum critical point. It is shown that the Berry phase term arises in the effective action of itinerant ferromagnets when the full SU(2) symmetry is present. We explicitly demonstrate that dynamical critical exponent of the theory with the Berry term is $z=2 +{\rm O}(\epsilon^2)$ in the sense of $\epsilon$ expansion, as previously discovered in the Ising limit. It appears, however, that the universality class at the interacting fixed point is not the same. We point out that even though the critical theory in the Ising limit can be obtained by the standard Hertz-Millis approach, the Heisenberg limit is expected to be different. We also calculate the exact electron Green functions $G(x,t=0)$ and $G(x=0,t)$ near the transition in a range of temperature, which can be used for experimental signatures of the associated critical points.
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