Abstract:
The longstanding problem of Brownian transport in a heterogeneous quasi one-dimensional medium with space-dependent self-diffusion coefficient is addressed in the overdamped (zero mass) limit. A satisfactory mesoscopic description is obtained in the Langevin equation formalism by introducing an appropriate drift term, which depends on the system macroscopic observables, namely the diffuser concentration and current. The drift term is related to the microscopic properties of the medium. The paradoxical existence of a finite drift at zero current suggests the possibility of designing a Maxwell demon operating between two equilibrium reservoirs at the same temperature.

Abstract:
The interpretation of the squared norm as probability and the apparent stochastic nature of observation in quantum mechanics are derived from the strong law of large numbers and the algebraic properties of infinite sequences of simultaneous quantum observables. It is argued that this result validates the many-worlds view of quantum reality.

Abstract:
The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics predicts the formation of distinct parallel worlds as a result of a quantum mechanical measurement. Communication among these parallel worlds would experimentally rule out alternatives to this interpretation. A procedure for ``interworld'' exchange of information and energy, using only state of the art quantum optical equipment, is described. A single ion is isolated from its environment in an ion trap. Then a quantum mechanical measurement with two discrete outcomes is performed on another system, resulting in the formation of two parallel worlds. Depending on the outcome of this measurement the ion is excited from only one of the parallel worlds before the ion decoheres through its interaction with the environment. A detection of this excitation in the other parallel world is direct evidence for the many-worlds interpretation. This method could have important practical applications in physics and beyond.

Abstract:
As cutting-edge experiments display ever more extreme forms of non-classical behavior, the prevailing view on the interpretation of quantum mechanics appears to be gradually changing. A (highly unscientific) poll taken at the 1997 UMBC quantum mechanics workshop gave the once all-dominant Copenhagen interpretation less than half of the votes. The Many Worlds interpretation (MWI) scored second, comfortably ahead of the Consistent Histories and Bohm interpretations. It is argued that since all the above-mentioned approaches to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics give identical cookbook prescriptions for how to calculate things in practice, practical-minded experimentalists, who have traditionally adopted the ``shut-up-and-calculate interpretation'', typically show little interest in whether cozy classical concepts are in fact real in some untestable metaphysical sense or merely the way we subjectively perceive a mathematically simpler world where the Schrodinger equation describes everything - and that they are therefore becoming less bothered by a profusion of worlds than by a profusion of words. Common objections to the MWI are discussed. It is argued that when environment-induced decoherence is taken into account, the experimental predictions of the MWI are identical to those of the Copenhagen interpretation except for an experiment involving a Byzantine form of ``quantum suicide''. This makes the choice between them purely a matter of taste, roughly equivalent to whether one believes mathematical language or human language to be more fundamental.

Abstract:
On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.

Abstract:
We study a mathematical model of social diffusion on a symmetric weighted network where individual nodes' states gradually assimilate to local social norms made by their neighbors' average states. Unlike physical diffusion, this process is not state conservational and thus the global state of the network (i.e., sum of node states) will drift. The asymptotic average node state will be the average of initial node states weighted by their strengths. Here we show that, while the global state is not conserved in this process, the inner product of strength and state vectors is conserved instead, and perfect positive correlation between node states and local averages of their self/neighbor strength ratios always results in upward (or at least neutral) global drift. We also show that the strength assortativity negatively affects the speed of homogenization. Based on these findings, we propose an adaptive link weight adjustment method to achieve the highest upward global drift by increasing the strength-state correlation. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed through numerical simulations and implications for real-world social applications are discussed.

Abstract:
It is argued that a diffusion may be ergodic even though the drift field has unbounded outward-directed parts. The discussion employs stochastic and numerical methods.

Abstract:
The majority of current textbooks on device physics at the undergraduate level derive the diode equation based on the diffusion of injected minority carriers. Generally the drift of the majority carriers, or the extent of drift, is not discussed and the importance of drift in the presence of a field in the neutral regions is almost totally ignored. The assumptions of zero field in the neutral regions and conduction by minority carrier diffusion lead to a number of pedagogical problems and paradoxes for the student. The purpose of this paper is to address the pedagogical problems and paradoxes apparent in the current treatment of conduction in the pn junction as it appears in the majority of texts.

Abstract:
A drift-diffusion model of miniband transport in strongly coupled superlattices is derived from the single-miniband Boltzmann-Poisson transport equation with a BGK (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision term. We use a consistent Chapman-Enskog method to analyze the hyperbolic limit, at which collision and electric field terms dominate the other terms in the Boltzmann equation. The reduced equation is of the drift-diffusion type, but it includes additional terms, and diffusion and drift do not obey the Einstein relation except in the limit of high temperatures.

Abstract:
This paper is a companion to 'Quantum Diffusion with Drift and the Einstein Relation I' (jointly submitted to arXiv). Its purpose is to describe and prove a certain number of technical results used in 'Quantum Diffusion with Drift and the Einstein Relation I', but not proven there. Both papers concern long-time properties (diffusion, drift) of the motion of a driven quantum particle coupled to an array of thermal reservoirs. The main technical results derived in the present paper are $(1)$ an asymptotic perturbation theory applicable for small driving, and, $(2)$ the construction of time-dependent correlation functions of particle observables.