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Cryogenic Composite Detectors for the Dark Matter Experiments CRESST and EURECA  [PDF]
S. Roth,C. Ciemniak,C. Coppi,F. v. Feilitzsch,A. Guetlein,C. Isaila,J. -C. Lanfranchi,S. Pfister,W. Potzel,W. Westphal
Physics , 2008,
Abstract: Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are candidates for non-baryonic Dark Matter. WIMPs are supposed to interact with baryonic matter via scattering off nuclei producing a nuclear recoil with energies up to a few 10 keV with a very low interaction rate of ~10^(-6) events per kg of target material and day in the energy region of interest. The Dark Matter experiment CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) and the EURECA project (European Underground Rare Event Calorimeter Array) are aimed at the direct detection of WIMPs with the help of very sensitive modularised cryogenic detectors that basically consist of a transition edge sensor (TES) in combination with a massive absorber crystal. In the CRESST experiment the search for coherent WIMP-nucleon scattering events is validated by the detection of two processes. In the scintillating absorber single crystal, CaWO_4, heat (phonons) and scintillation light are produced and detected with two independent cryogenic detectors: a phonon channel and a separate light channel. The development of such cryogenic detectors and the potential ton-scale production are investigated in this paper. To decouple the TES production from the choice of the target material in order to avoid heating cycles of the absorber crystal and to allow pretesting of the TESs, a composite detector design (CDD) for the detector production has been developed and studied. An existing thermal detector model has been extended to the CDD, in order to investigate, understand, and optimize the performance of composite detectors. This extended model, which has been worked out in detail, can be expected to provide a considerable help when tailoring composite detectors to the requirements of various experiments.
Advances in Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors  [PDF]
A. Buzulutskov
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1748-0221/7/02/C02025
Abstract: Cryogenic Avalanche Detectors (CRADs) are referred to as a new class of noble-gas detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures with electron avalanching performed directly in the detection medium, the latter being in gaseous, liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) state. Electron avalanching is provided by Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) multipliers, in particular GEMs and THGEMs, operated at cryogenic temperatures in dense noble gases. The final goal for this kind of detectors is the development of large-volume detectors of ultimate sensitivity for rare-event experiments and medical applications, such as coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering, direct dark matter search, astrophysical (solar and supernova) neutrino detection experiments and Positron Emission Tomography technique. This review is the first attempt to summarize the results on CRAD performances obtained by different groups. A brief overview of the available CRAD concepts is also given and the most remarkable CRAD physics effects are discussed.
New class of biological detectors for WIMPs  [PDF]
Andrzej K. Drukier,Charles Cantor,Mark Chonofsky,George M. Church,Robert L. Fagaly,Katherine Freese,Alejandro Lopez,Takeshi Sano,Christopher Savage,Wesley P. Wong
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X14430076
Abstract: Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) may constitute a large fraction of the matter in the Universe. There are excess events in the data of DAMA/LIBRA, CoGeNT, CRESST-II, and recently CDMS-Si, which could be consistent with WIMP masses of approximately 10 GeV/c2. However, for MDM > 10 GeV/c2 null results of the CDMS-Ge, XENON, and LUX detectors may be in tension with the potential detections for certain dark matter scenarios and assuming a certain light response. We propose the use of a new class of biological dark matter (DM) detectors to further examine this light dark matter hypothesis, taking advantage of new signatures with low atomic number targets, Two types of biological DM detectors are discussed here: DNA-based detectors and enzymatic reactions (ER) based detectors. In the case of DNA-based detectors, we discuss a new implementation. In the case of ER detectors, there are four crucial phases of the detection process: a) change of state due to energy deposited by a particle; b) amplification due to the release of energy derived from the action of an enzyme on its substrate; c) sustainable but non-explosive enzymatic reaction; d) self-termination due to the denaturation of the enzyme, when the temperature is raised. This paper provides information of how to design as well as optimize these four processes.
Direct detection of WIMPs  [PDF]
David G. Cerdeno,Anne M. Green
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2010.12.064
Abstract: A generic weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is one of the most attractive candidates to account for the cold dark matter in our Universe, since it would be thermally produced with the correct abundance to account for the observed dark matter density. WIMPs can be searched for directly through their elastic scattering with a target material, and a variety of experiments are currently operating or planned with this aim. In these notes we overview the theoretical calculation of the direct detection rate of WIMPs as well as the different detection signals. We discuss the various ingredients (from particle physics and astrophysics) that enter the calculation and review the theoretical predictions for the direct detection of WIMPs in particle physics models.
On the direct detection of extragalactic WIMPs  [PDF]
Katherine Freese,Paolo Gondolo,Leo Stodolsky
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.64.123502
Abstract: We consider the direct detection of WIMPs reaching the Earth from outside the Milky Way. If these WIMPs form a distinct population they will, although of much lower flux than typical galactic halo WIMPs, have a number of features which might aid in their ultimate detectability: a high and essentially unique velocity ($\sim 600$ km/s in the galactic rest frame) due to their acceleration in entering the Milky Way, and most likely one or two unique flight directions at the Earth. This high velocity may be experimentally advantageous in direct detection experiments, since it gives a recoil signal at relatively high energy where background is generally much reduced. For a density of extragalactic WIMPs comparable to the critical density of the universe the count rate expected is very roughly the same as that of fast galactic WIMPs. If there is an increased density relative to critical associated with the Local Group of galaxies, say 10-30 times the critical density, there is a corresponding increase in rate and the extragalactic WIMPs would show up as a high energy shoulder in the recoil energy distribution. Evidence of such WIMPs as a separate population with these distinct properties would offer interesting information on the formation and prehistory of the galaxy.
How Precisely Could We Identify WIMPs Model-Independently with Direct Dark Matter Detection Experiments  [PDF]
Manuel Drees,Chung-Lin Shan
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1142/9789814293792_0042
Abstract: In this talk we present data analysis methods for reconstructing the mass and couplings of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by using directly future experimental data (i.e., measured recoil energies) from direct Dark Matter detection. These methods are independent of the model of Galactic halo as well as of WIMPs. The basic ideas of these methods and the feasibility and uncertainties of applying them to direct detection experiments with the next generation detectors will be discussed.
Direct and indirect detection of WIMPs  [PDF]
O. Martineau,for the EDELWEISS collaboration
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We present here the principles of detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, which could represent a large contribution to Dark Matter. A status of the experimental situation is given both for indirect and direct detection. In particular, the DAMA claim for a WIMP signal is confronted to the recent results of the CDMS and EDELWEISS experiments. We conclude by comparing direct and indirect search sensitivities.
Direct searches for Dark Matter Particles: WIMPs and axions  [PDF]
Igor G. Irastorza
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: WIMPs and axions are the two best motivated candidates to compose the Dark Matter of the Universe. An important number of experimental groups are developing and using different techniques for their direct detection. An updated review of current searches is done, emphasizing latest results
First results of the EDELWEISS-II WIMP search using Ge cryogenic detectors with interleaved electrodes  [PDF]
E. Armengaud,C. Augier,A. Benoit,L. Berge,O. Besida,J. Blumer,A. Broniatowski,A. Chantelauze,M. Chapellier,G. Chardin,F. Charlieux,S. Collin,X. Defay,M. De Jesus,P. Di Stefano,Y. Dolgorouki,J. Domange,L. Dumoulin,K. Eitel,J. Gascon,G. Gerbier,M. Gros,M. Hannawald,S. Herve,A. Juillard,H. Kluck,V. Kozlov,R. Lemrani,P. Loaiza,A. Lubashevskiy,S. Marnieros,X-F. Navick,E. Olivieri,P. Pari,B. Paul,S. Rozov,V. Sanglard,S. Scorza,S. Semikh,A. S. Torrento-Coello,L. Vagneron,M-A. Verdier,E. Yakushev,the EDELWEISS Collaboration
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1016/j.physletb.2010.03.057
Abstract: The EDELWEISS-II collaboration has performed a direct search for WIMP dark matter with an array of ten 400 g heat-and-ionization cryogenic detectors equipped with interleaved electrodes for the rejection of near-surface events. Six months of continuous operation at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane have been achieved. The observation of one nuclear recoil candidate above 20 keV in an effective exposure of 144 kgd is interpreted in terms of limits on the cross-section of spin-independent interactions of WIMPs and nucleons. A cross-section of 1.0x10^-7 pb is excluded at 90%CL for a WIMP mass of 80 GeV/c2. This result demonstrates for the first time the very high background rejection capabilities of these simple and robust detectors in an actual WIMP search experiment.
Halo-independent analysis of direct detection data for light WIMPs
Del Nobile, Eugenio;Gelmini, Graciela B.;Gondolo, Paolo;Huh, Ji-Haeng
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2013,
Abstract: We present a halo-independent analysis of direct detection data on "light WIMPs," i.e. weakly interacting massive particles with mass close to or below 10 GeV/c^2. We include new results from silicon CDMS detectors (bounds and excess events), the latest CoGeNT acceptances, and recent measurements of low sodium quenching factors in NaI crystals. We focus on light WIMPs with spin-independent isospin-conserving and isospin-violating interactions with nucleons. For these dark matter candidates we find that a low quenching factor would make the DAMA modulation incompatible with a reasonable escape velocity for the dark matter halo, and that the tension among experimental data tightens in both the isospin-conserving and isospin-violating scenarios. We also find that a new although milder tension appears between the CoGeNT and DAMA annual modulations on one side and the silicon excess events on the other, in that it seems difficult to interpret them as the modulated and unmodulated aspects of the same WIMP dark matter signal.
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