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 Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/391/1/012018 Abstract: The presence of magnetic clusters has been verified in both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic quantum critical systems. We review some of the strongest evidence for strongly doped quantum critical systems (Ce(Ru$_{0.24}$Fe$_{0.76}$)$_2$Ge$_2$) and we discuss the implications for the response of the system when cluster formation is combined with finite size effects. In particular, we discuss the change of universality class that is observed close to the order-disorder transition. We detail the conditions under which clustering effects will play a significant role also in the response of stoichiometric systems and their experimental signature.
 Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1140/epja/i2014-14017-x Abstract: Various definitions of the symmetry energy are introduced for nuclei, dilute nuclear matter below saturation density and stellar matter, which is found in compact stars or core-collapse supernovae. The resulting differences are exemplified by calculations in a theoretical approach based on a generalized relativistic density functional for dense matter. It contains nucleonic clusters as explicit degrees of freedom with medium dependent properties that are derived for light clusters from a quantum statistical approach. With such a model the dissolution of clusters at high densities can be described. The effects of the liquid-gas phase transition in nuclear matter and of cluster formation in stellar matter on the density dependence of the symmetry energy are studied for different temperatures. It is observed that correlations and the formation of inhomogeneous matter at low densities and temperatures causes an increase of the symmetry energy as compared to calculations assuming a uniform uncorrelated spatial distribution of constituent baryons and leptons.
 Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921311000263 Abstract: Stars form predominantly in clusters inside dense clumps of molecular clouds that are both turbulent and magnetized. The typical size and mass of the cluster-forming clumps are $\sim 1$ pc and $\sim 10^2 -$ 10$^3$ M$_\odot$, respectively. Here, we discuss some recent progress on numerical simulations of clustered star formation in such parsec-scale dense clumps with emphasis on the role of magnetic fields. The simulations have shown that magnetic fields tend to slow down global gravitational collapse and thus star formation, especially in the presence of protostellar outflow feedback. Even a relatively weak can retard star formation significantly, because the field is amplified by supersonic turbulence to an equipartition strength. However, in such a case, the distorted field component dominates the uniform one. In contrast, if the field is moderately strong, the uniform component remains dominant. Such a difference in the magnetic structure is observed in simulated polarization maps of dust thermal emission. Recent polarization measurements show that the field lines in nearby cluster-forming clumps are spatially well-ordered, indicative of a rather strong field. In such strongly-magnetized clumps, star formation should proceed relatively slowly; it continues for at least several global free-fall times of the parent dense clump ($t_{\rm ff}\sim$ a few $\times 10^5$ yr).
 Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2002.05708.x Abstract: We investigate the spatial, kinematic and chemical properties of globular cluster systems formed in merging and interacting galaxies using N-body/SPH simulations. Although we can not resolve individual clusters in our simulation, we assume that they form in collapsing molecular clouds when the local external gas pressure exceeds 10$^5$ $k_B$ (where $k_B$ is the Boltzmann constant). Several simulations are carried out for a range of initial conditions and galaxy mass ratios. The input model spirals are given a halo globular cluster system similar to those observed for the Milky Way and M31. Gravitational tidal effects during galaxy merging and interaction leads to a dramatic increase in gas pressure, which exceeds our threshold and hence triggers new globular cluster formation. We investigate the properties of the globular cluster system in the remnant galaxy, such as number density, specific frequency, kinematic properties and metallicity distribution. Different orbital conditions and mass ratios give rise to a range in globular cluster properties, particularly for the interaction models. Our key results are the following: The newly formed metal-rich clusters are concentrated at the centre of the merger remnant elliptical, whereas the metal-poor ones are distributed to the outer parts due to strong angular momentum transfer. (abridged version)
 Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308954 Abstract: We present the analysis of a suite of simulations of a Virgo mass galaxy cluster. Undertaken within the framework of standard cold dark matter cosmology, these simulations were performed at differing resolutions and with increasingly complex physical processes, with the goal of identifying the effects of each on the evolution of the cluster. We focus on the cluster at the present epoch and examine properties including the radial distributions of density, temperature, entropy and velocity. We also map `observable' projected properties such as the surface mass density, X-ray surface brightness and SZ signature. We identify significant differences between the simulations, which highlights the need for caution when comparing numerical simulations to observations of galaxy clusters. While resolution affects the inner density profile in dark matter simulations, the addition of a gaseous component, especially one that cools and forms stars, affects the entire cluster. We conclude that both resolution and included physical processes play an important role in simulating the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters. Therefore, physical inferences drawn from simulations that do not include a gaseous component that can cool and form stars present a poor representation of reality. (Abridged)
 Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.72.1495 Abstract: We theoretically examine the effects of polaron formation in quantum dots on the transport properties. When a separation between two electron-levels in a quantum dot matches the energy of the longitudinal optical (LO) phonons, the polarons are strongly formed. The Rabi splitting between the levels is observable in a peak structure of the differential conductance G as a function of the bias voltage. The polaron formation suppresses the peak height of G, which is due to the competition between the resonant tunneling (resonance between a level in the dot and states in the leads) and the polaron formation (Rabi oscillation between two levels in the dot). G shows a sharp dip at the midpoint between the split peaks. This is attributable to the destructive interference between bonding and anti-bonding states in a composite system of electrons and phonons.
 Physics , 1996, DOI: 10.1016/S0370-2693(97)00032-4 Abstract: Multifragmentation in Au+Au collisions is investigated at incident energies in the range 100-400 MeV per nucleon by means of a recently developed quantal Langevin model. The inclusion of quantum fluctuations enhances the average multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments, especially in central collisions. This is mainly because the excitation energies of fragments are reduced due to the quantal behavior of intrinsic specific heat.
 Physics , 2008, Abstract: We discuss the basic properties of a recently proposed hybrid light-matter system of strongly interacting photons in an array of coupled cavities each doped with a single two level system. Using the non-linearity generated from the photon blockade effect, we predict strong correlations between the hopping photons in the array, and show the possibility of observing a phase transition from a polaritonic insulator to a superfluid of photons. In the Mott phase, this interaction can be mapped to an array of spins. We show how the remaining Hamiltonian, in conjunction with individual spin manipulation, can thus be used for simulating spin chains (useful for state transfer protocols) and cluster state quantum computation.
 Thomas Vojta Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s10909-010-0205-4 Abstract: In this paper, we review theoretical and experimental research on rare region effects at quantum phase transitions in disordered itinerant electron systems. After summarizing a few basic concepts about phase transitions in the presence of quenched randomness, we introduce the idea of rare regions and discuss their importance. We then analyze in detail the different phenomena that can arise at magnetic quantum phase transitions in disordered metals, including quantum Griffiths singularities, smeared phase transitions, and cluster-glass formation. For each scenario, we discuss the resulting phase diagram and summarize the behavior of various observables. We then review several recent experiments that provide examples of these rare region phenomena. We conclude by discussing limitations of current approaches and open questions.
 Keith M. Ashman Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1007/10857603_1 Abstract: The discovery of young globular clusters in merging galaxies and other environments provides an opportunity to study directly the process of globular cluster formation. Empirically it appears that globular cluster formation occurs preferentially in regions in which star formation occurs at a high rate and efficiency. Further, the interstellar medium in such regions is likely to be at a higher pressure than less active star-forming environments. An additional observational clue to the globular cluster formation process is that young globular clusters have little or no mass-radius relationship. In this paper I argue that high pressure and high star-formation efficiency are responsible for current globular cluster formation. I suggest that the precursors to globular clusters are molecular clouds and that the mass-radius relationship exhibited by such clouds is wiped out by a variable star formation efficiency.
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